Tag Archives: science

Showcasing the importance of Sport and Exercise Science

By Jamie McPhee, Manchester Metropolitan University, @McpheeJS

As a physiologist and a Sport & Exercise Scientist, I am always keen to be involved in opportunities to showcase the importance of Sport and Exercise Science (SES) and the exciting, important research taking place. That’s why it has been a real pleasure to work with The Physiological Society’s staff, GuildHE and SES departments across the UK to develop the Sport & Exercise Science Education: Impact on the UK Economy report that is being launched by the Shadow Minister for Higher Education in Parliament today.

The report can be broadly categorised into two parts; a quantitative section and qualitative case studies. The quantitative section combines data compiled by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and data on student numbers and demographics provided by UK universities and colleges. It is on this information that the report’s headlines are based – SES students currently employed in the workforce contribute £3.9 billion per annum in added income to the UK’s economy. They also contribute an additional £1.4 billion to the public purse over their working lives. In addition, the qualitative case studies provide insight into how this economic impact is translated into improved health and well-being at an individual and public health level, as well as recreational and elite level sports boosting local economies and providing greater job opportunities. Indeed, the data suggests that SES courses make a financial contribution to the UK economy equivalent to over 147,300 jobs.

Physiology is at the heart of the new testing methods and data we are using at Manchester Metropolitan University, in concert with our colleagues at the University of the Sunshine Coast in Australia, to better understand impairments affecting para-swimming competitors. By quantifying how different kinds of conditions and impairments affect technique, efficiency, drag, and power in competitive swimming, our research has created better definitions for the competitive classes in para-swimming.

The proposed revisions, including the use of 3D kinematic data and other forms of testing, offer an evidence-based classification currently being tested and evaluated by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to ensure that the IPC Classifications are kept up-to-date by the most accurate and rigorous science available in time for the Paralympic Games, hosted by Paris in 2024.

In addition to the work taking place at MMU, this project showcases case studies from other universities and colleges in this project offering SES courses, all of which can be read in the report http://www.physoc.org/sportscience. I hope that colleagues in the field will find the report’s conclusions useful in continuing to champion the economic and social benefits of SES in the UK.

Sport and Exercise Science is at the heart of tackling global challenges

By Professor Bridget Lumb, President, The Physiological Society and Professor Karen Stanton, York St John Vice-Chancellor, Vice-Chair, GuildHE

If you’re a Tottenham or Liverpool fan still rejoicing from last week’s Champion League triumphs, we don’t need to explain the power and excitement of sport. Those miraculous, edge-of-the-seat turnarounds may have only come to fruition in the final minutes of the matches, but are the result of countless hours of preparation and training by the players on the pitch. This work rests on an army of sports scientists, focused on improving performance and preventing injury. Our continued improved scientific understanding of how the body works is on display every time an athlete pushes themselves that little bit further, or runs that little bit faster.

The importance of Sports and Exercise Science extends far beyond elite athletes. Obesity, diabetes, cancer, depression: all areas in which Sport and Exercise science research is playing a pivotal role in improving the health of everyone. Research in these areas is preventing and treating conditions and diseases that cost the NHS billions every year and are becoming ever more important as we face the challenges of an ageing population.

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Sport and Exercise Science is a vital scientific discipline that plays an important role in the health and wealth of the nation. And yet too often it faces an image problem that does not match the reality. That is why The Physiological Society and GuildHE have come together to launch a major new report looking at the economic benefit of Sport and Exercise Science. The findings are clear: as well as being academically rigorous, Sport and Exercise Science courses provide enormous contributions to the UK economy – to the tune of almost £4 billion every year, supporting almost 150,000 jobs.

As well as benefiting the nation, individual students benefit financially, with graduates earning nearly £670,000 more over the course of their careers. For every £1 a student spends on their education, they get gain £5.50, which is a tremendous return on investment. The report also provides a snapshot as to how related research in Sport and Exercise Science addresses a variety of national challenges.

More than just a degree

Our project also highlights the exciting range of ways this research addresses a variety of national challenges.  At York St John University, as a core part of their studies, students volunteer their time with sports clubs, sport and exercise therapy clinics and smaller businesses, providing valuable support to organisations that would otherwise be unable to afford it at the same time as developing their own skills. Elsewhere, the University of Portsmouth undertakes research that plays a critical role in the development of new approaches to drowning prevention and water safety education. For example, this research underpins the RNLI’s “Respect the Water” National Water Safety Campaign, informing its “Float First” approach to cold-water survival.

One of the most striking things is just how many universities and colleges of all shapes and sizes are working in this space – our sample covers 30 institutions across Scotland, Wales and England and draws on data from across the UK. There are large institutions, such as the University of Exeter, and others, such as AECC University College in Bournemouth, involved in teaching, research and knowledge exchange in Sport and Exercise Science. It really is a diverse mix that supports and delivers high-quality education.

National importance

Sport and Exercise Science graduates and researchers are working in fields that are becoming increasingly important for the UK. Many graduates go on to work directly in fields related to sport and exercise, such as physiotherapists or coaches, and in turn supporting the sports industry, a major part of the UK’s cultural offer.

Sports and Exercise Science is also improving the quality of life of patients with life threatening diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. For example, Plymouth Marjon works with the NHS and others to help thousands of patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain lead better lives. Exercise research at Northumbria University is looking at how to improve the duration and quality of life of people with cancer. Work taking place at Liverpool John Moores University is minimising the risk of stair falls, which is the leading cause of accidental death in older people. This week the British Heart Foundation found that the number of people dying from heart and circulatory diseases before they reach their 75th birthday is on the rise for the first time in 50 years, making this research even more important (the full press release can be found here).

Such research is vital as we consider how we address the global challenge of how to age well, and improve the health and welling being of us all. This will become ever more important for the UK as the government seeks to deliver its mission, defined in the Industrial Strategy, to ensure that people can enjoy at least 5 extra healthy, independent years of life by 2035, while narrowing the gap between the experiences of the richest and poorest. Sport and Exercise Science research is at the heart of tackling these big issues and these courses produce dynamic and engaged graduates that are committed to addressing some of the major challenges facing society.

Treating autism spectrum disorders by targeting connections in the brain

By David A. Menassa, @DavidMenassa1, University of Southampton, Neuroscience Theme Lead of The Physiological Society

The United Kingdom has seen a rise in the number of people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). More recently, some trusts in Northern Ireland have reported a three-fold increase in diagnoses since 2011. Some cases of ASD are linked to a genetic mutation but most of the time, we do not actually know why they occur.

ASD is an umbrella term for disorders characterised by impairments in social interaction and language acquisition, sensory and motor problems and stereotypical behaviours of variable severity according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Multiple studies report that the physiology and structure of synapses (the gaps between our neurons) are affected in ASDs (1, 2) and that addressing these changes could offer clues for therapy.

The genetic mutations giving rise to different ASDs are predominantly involved in synaptic function. A large-scale analysis of 2000 human brains from individuals with ASDs, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder showed that genes involved in controlling the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse are least active in ASDs (3, 4).

An attempt using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method in a genetic form of ASD known as Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) showed some promise (5). When the researchers turned on a gene that is turned off in this condition, this changed the cells derived from affected individuals from diseased to normal.

Because the number of synapses in ASD post-mortem brains is altered (1), microglia (the brain’s resident immune cells) are thought to be directly involved (as these cells can determine whether synapses stick around) (6-8). Minocycline, which inhibits these microglia, has been used in trials on FXS individuals with promising outcomes including improvements in language, attention and focus as well as an alleviation of core symptoms (9, 10). Furthermore, novel approaches involving inducing microglia to self-destruct (11) or shielding synapses from microglia (12) are being explored. At least in terms of symptom alleviation, addressing synaptic dysfunction and microglia seem to be promising avenues for treatment.

Environmental factors such as changes during pregnancy could contribute to ASD such as the transfer of maternal antibodies against fetal synapses (13) or maternal immune activation (14) or lack of oxygen to the mum or the baby (15). Ways to reduce the risk of injury to the brain with low oxygen in the mum for example have involved delivering antioxidants to the placenta (16). Furthermore, in the early life of the newborn when low oxygen is detected, inhalation of xenon gas combined with cooling also seem to provide promising results that improve neurological outcome (17).

The impact of altered brain development extends beyond the individual influencing their family, carers and the healthcare system. More funding is needed to support this research in order to elucidate the underlying physiology and identify effective treatments.

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This figure illustrates how connections can occur in the ASD brain. Neurons in various colours (black, green and blue) make connections with each other through synapses and some connections are interrupted. Microglia (pink) are near the synapses which we can see in the highlighted squares: in a) a part of the neuron called a dendrite with very few dots on it means there are less synapses than in b) where there are more black dots on the dendrite which means more synapses. These changes represent what we tend to see in post-mortem brain tissue in ASD. Microglia are thought to be involved here by either not clearing away black dots in which case we get more synapses (e.g. typical autism) or by overclearing in which case we have less synapses (e.g. Rett’s syndrome). ASD is otherwise known as a disorder of how connections are established in the brain or a connectivity disorder.

References

  1. Penzes P, Cahill ME, Jones KA, Van Leeuwen JE, Woolfrey KM. Dendritic spine pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14(3):285-93.
  2. Lima Caldeira G, Peça J, Carvalho AL. New insights on synaptic dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2019;57:62-70.
  3. Zhu Y, Sousa AMM, Gao T, Skarica M, Li M, Santpere G, et al. Spatiotemporal transcriptomic divergence across human and macaque brain development. Science. 2018;362(6420).
  4. Gandal MJ, Zhang P, Hadjimichael E, Walker RL, Chen C, Liu S, et al. Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Science. 2018;362(6420).
  5. Liu XS, Wu H, Krzisch M, Wu X, Graef J, Muffat J, et al. Rescue of Fragile X Syndrome Neurons by DNA Methylation Editing of the FMR1 Gene. Cell. 2018;172(5):979-92.e6.
  6. Schafer DP, Lehrman EK, Kautzman AG, Koyama R, Mardinly AR, Yamasaki R, et al. Microglia sculpt postnatal neural circuits in an activity and complement-dependent manner. Neuron. 2012;74(4):691-705.
  7. Schafer DP, Heller CT, Gunner G, Heller M, Gordon C, Hammond T, et al. Microglia contribute to circuit defects in Mecp2 null mice independent of microglia-specific loss of Mecp2 expression. Elife. 2016;5.
  8. Paolicelli RC, Bolasco G, Pagani F, Maggi L, Scianni M, Panzanelli P, et al. Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development. Science. 2011;333(6048):1456-8.
  9. Utari A, Chonchaiya W, Rivera SM, Schneider A, Hagerman RJ, Faradz SM, et al. Side effects of minocycline treatment in patients with fragile X syndrome and exploration of outcome measures. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2010;115(5):433-43.
  10. Paribello C, Tao L, Folino A, Berry-Kravis E, Tranfaglia M, Ethell IM, et al. Open-label add-on treatment trial of minocycline in fragile X syndrome. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:91.
  11. Kim HJ, Cho MH, Shim WH, Kim JK, Jeon EY, Kim DH, et al. Deficient autophagy in microglia impairs synaptic pruning and causes social behavioral defects. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(11):1576-84.
  12. Lehrman EK, Wilton DK, Litvina EY, Welsh CA, Chang ST, Frouin A, et al. CD47 Protects Synapses from Excess Microglia-Mediated Pruning during Development. Neuron. 2018;100(1):120-34.e6.
  13. Coutinho E, Menassa DA, Jacobson L, West SJ, Domingos J, Moloney TC, et al. Persistent microglial activation and synaptic loss with behavioral abnormalities in mouse offspring exposed to CASPR2-antibodies in utero. Acta Neuropathol. 2017;134(4):567-83.
  14. Careaga M, Murai T, Bauman MD. Maternal Immune Activation and Autism Spectrum Disorder: From Rodents to Nonhuman and Human Primates. Biol Psychiatry. 2017;81(5):391-401.
  15. Kolevzon A, Gross R, Reichenberg A. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: a review and integration of findings. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(4):326-33.
  16. Phillips TJ, Scott H, Menassa DA, Bignell AL, Sood A, Morton JS, et al. Treating the placenta to prevent adverse effects of gestational hypoxia on fetal brain development. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):9079.
  17. Mayor S. Xenon shows promise to prevent brain injury from lack of oxygen in newborns. BMJ. 2010;340:c2005.

Obesity: hamsters may hold the clue to beating it

Apply by 28 February for our Research Grants of up to £10,000 (over a 12 to 18-month period). This scheme supports physiologists in their first permanent academic position or returning to a permanent position after a career break, to provide support for their research or to provide seed-funding to start a new project. Gisela Helfer was a 2017 awardee of this grant, and you can read about her research below:

The global obesity crisis shows no signs of abating, and we urgently need new ways to tackle it. Consuming fewer calories and burning more energy through physical activity is a proven way to lose weight, but it’s clearly easier said than done. The problem with eating less and moving more is that people feel hungry after exercise and they have to fight the biologically programmed urge to eat. To develop effective ways to lose weight, we need a better understanding of how these biological urges work. We believe hamsters hold some clues.

Hamsters and other seasonal animals change their body and behaviour according to the time of year, such as growing a thick coat in winter or only giving birth in spring. Some seasonal animals can also adjust their appetite so that they aren’t hungry when less food is available. For example, the Siberian hamster loses almost half its body weight in time for winter, so they don’t need to eat as much to survive the winter months. Understanding the underlying physiological processes that drive this change may help us to understand our own physiology and may help us develop new treatments.

How hungry we feel is controlled by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus helps to regulate appetite and body weight, not only in seasonal animals but also in humans.

Tanycytes (meaning “long cells”) are the key cells in the hypothalamus and, amazingly, they can change size and shape depending on the season. In summer, when there is a lot of daylight and animals eat more, tanycytes are long and they reach into areas of the brain that control appetite. In winter, when days are shorter, the cells are very short and few.

These cells are important because they regulate hormones in the brain that change the seasonal physiology of animals, such as hamsters and seasonal rats.

Growth signals

We don’t fully understand how all these hormones in the hypothalamus interact to change appetite and weight loss, but our recent research has shown that growth signals could be important.

One way that growth signals are increased in the brain is through exercise. Siberian hamsters don’t hibernate; they stay active during the winter months. If hamsters have access to a running wheel, they will exercise more than usual. When they are exercising on their wheel, they gain weight and eat more. This is true especially during a time when they would normally be small and adapted for winter. Importantly, the increased body weight in exercising hamsters is not just made up of increased muscle, but also increased fat.

We know that the hamsters interpret the length of day properly in winter, or, at least, in a simulated winter day (the lights being on for a shorter duration), because they still have a white winter coat despite being overweight. We now understand that in hamsters the exercise-stimulated weight gain has to do with hormones that usually regulate growth, because when we block these hormones the weight gain can be reversed.

When people take up exercise, they sometimes gain weight, and this may be similar to what happens in hamsters when appetite is increased to make up for the increased energy being burned during exercise. This doesn’t mean that people shouldn’t exercise during the winter, because we don’t naturally lose weight like Siberian hamsters, but it does explain why, for some people, taking up exercise might make them feel hungrier and so they might need extra help to lose weight.

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We need to find ways to overcome appetite. Lucky Business/Shutterstock.com

What we have learned from studying hamsters so far has already given us plenty of ideas about which cells and systems we need to look at in humans to understand how weight regulation works. This will create new opportunities to identify possible targets for anti-obesity drugs and maybe even tell us how to avoid obesity in the first place.

By Gisela Helfer@gi_helfer and Rebecca Dumbell

(This blog was originally published on The Conversation.)

Early Career Conference: Join us in December!

Want to run a two-day early career physiology conference? This valuable experience will give you leadership experience and boost your CV! Any Affiliate and/or Undergraduate Members of The Society may apply. Read testimonials from our first Future Physiology conference in 2017 below. 

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Jose L. Areta, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway:

Attending the Future Physiology meeting in Leeds in December 2017, coming all the way from Oslo, Norway, was a privilege I had thanks to a Physiological Society travel grant. I am a post-doctoral researcher in the early stages of what, I think, might turn into a long academic career. I signed up for this conference specifically to get a better overview and insights on what a researcher at my stage could do to make the right choices for his future career. The conference did not fail to provide valuable food for thought.

The attendees included a wide range of representatives of the academic career continuum, from undergraduates to professors. A majority of these were, seemingly, early career researchers (ECRs) and they belonged to a reasonably wide range of areas within the field of physiology. This showed that the purpose of the conference was to go beyond delving into their specific areas of expertise. A dominant topic of interest seemed to be commonalities irrespective of the specific area of expertise, meaning the ins and outs of working in and growing through academia.

Several of the sessions provided examples of more established researchers showcasing how they built their own academic careers in the context of research in physiology. The take-home message for me was that there is no one way to become an established researcher in any given area. The impression that I got is that love for the work you do followed by dedication and a solid network play a key role, immediately followed by serendipity. This seemed to provide some support to the saying ‘the harder you work, the luckier you get’, that I sometimes remind myself of.

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On that note, it was also nice to feel supported by other researchers going through similar difficulties in a research system that seems to very often put high-pressure on individuals and can lead to sub-optimal life quality and, in many cases, burnout. Uncertainty seems to be a common denominator for many researchers in different stages of their careers (more so ECRs). Making this explicit is important to find a solution for it. I think this conference was a good first step to bridge the gap between ECRs who have a lot of questions on how to progress through the ranks, while making meaningful contributions to science and more experienced researchers talking about their specific experiences or professionals providing advice.

Personally, one of my favourite events was a small grant-writing workshop I had the chance to attend that also turned into a bit of a career advice workshop. Transitioning towards being an independent researcher is very significant milestone for anyone in research, I think. Gathering some tools to do so in the context finding one’s place in the field was a nice addition to the experience of the conference.

In conclusion, I think this conference was a good first step to put the uncertainties that ECRs face throughout their development as researchers in the spotlight, and provide them (us!) with tools and networks for better tackling these.

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Dan Brayson, King’s College London, London, UK:

As a member of the Affiliate Working Group of The Society, I was privileged to have the opportunity to help with the planning and execution of the Future Physiology meeting, an early career researcher (ECR) focussed meeting held at the University of Leeds last month. The meeting was ‘by ECRs for ECRs’. This meant that the Affiliate Working Group was placed at forefront of the brainstorming process to come up with a plan for a meeting which facilitated an engaging experience for early career scientists.

What we hoped for was an opportunity for ECR’s to shed their inferiority complex baggage (we all have it), and to feel invigorated by the conference experience rather than being overwhelmed. To this end 20 ECRs were selected for oral presentations whilst five talks were given by senior scientists (for balance, of course). Of these, three were young PIs and shining examples that we don’t have to wait around for professors to retire in order to make significant progress in our careers. We hoped that this would add a motivational slant for attendees. If they can do it, why can’t we?

On a personal note it was a red letter day. I was charged with sharing the chairing and presentation-marking duties with my fellow Affiliate Working Group members, a first for me, and with this, I got to experience the joy of facilitating meeting proceedings rather than merely taking part. At least this was my perception of it, and I would definitely do it again.

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Reflecting now on the meeting I feel that it was a good first crack at a meeting for ECRs. However, I also feel that there is further scope to create the most engaging and immersive experience for young scientists. One idea would be to have facilitated debate workshops on general topics (neuroscience, cardiovascular physiology, gastrointestinal physiology etc.). This would engage people in a relaxed environment to talk more generally about the big issues/questions facing their chosen fields.

Friends in high places: Researchers go global for answers at high altitude (Part 1)

By Alexandra Williams, @AlexM_Williams

Global Research Expedition on Altitude Related Chronic Health (or Global REACH) is an international collaboration of academics and physicians from 14 institutions across Canada, the UK, the US, Peru and Nepal. While the “Global REACH” title is relatively new, its leaders have conducted a multitude of expeditions over the last decade to Nepal’s Himalaya, California’s White Mountains and now Peru’s Andes. With a collective interest in heart, lung and vascular health and altitude medicine, Global REACH’s collaborations ultimately aim to understand how the human body adapts, or maladapts, chronically to the low oxygen environments of earth’s highest altitudes.

I am writing this from 4,300 m, at the Laboratorio de Cerro de Pasco and Institutio de Investigaciones de la Altura in Peru. Our team of over 40 researchers, trainees, principal investigators and physicians are currently conducting approximately 20 studies examining heart, lung and brain physiology in lowlanders (us) and Andean highlanders with and without chronic mountain sickness.

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Example of a centrifuged blood sample from an Andean participant with chronic mountain sickness. A normal, healthy lowlander’s hematocrit (i.e. fraction of red cells in the blood) is ~40%; several Andean participants including this one had hematocrit values of 75-80%.

This series of blogs, however, does not intend to outline our experiments or specific scientific findings (which was described in a recent issue of Physiology News). Instead, you will get a raw, behind-the-scenes look at what transpires on these expeditions: the challenges we face, the experiences we gain, and most importantly the team values that drive the success of these international collaborations.

30 June 2018: Day 1 at altitude

Yesterday, the last of three groups of the Global REACH team drove from sea level in Lima up to 4,300 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Amongst the team, some individuals are feeling “okay” (say, a rating of 7/10), while others have been in bed with splitting headaches for more than 24 hours. We would later discover that one, in fact, had a bout of pneumonia. Nevertheless, one thing remains constant across the team – the excitement. It is palpable. Seven lab bays are set up, participants are being scheduled in, the equipment is (mostly) accounted for and working. Data collection has already begun today, and our first Andean participants are coming in tomorrow morning. This is what we came for, and we’re ready for the fun to begin.

For those who haven’t experienced the thin air of Earth’s highest mountain ranges, a 7-hour jump from sea level to over 4,300 m altitude is significant, one which often leaves individuals feeling much worse than “not great.” Yet, with advanced knowledge of the side effects of altitude and hypoxic exposure, Global REACH members have joined forces to answer a plethora of physiological questions. For many, this will mark more than four expeditions to high altitude, a select few even in the double digits. In the first few days, most – including our team leaders – will have headaches, nausea, sleep disturbances and apnoeas. The inter-individual variability of these symptoms is quite high, as a select few may feel fine, most will feel some magnitude and combination of the list, and others will be periodically out of commission.

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Performing a carbon monoxide rebeathe test to measure red cell volume and total blood volume with an Andean participant in Cerro de Pasco. This method is technically challenging, and is made more difficult with a significant language barrier.

So, why do we do it? Why do we involve ourselves with the potential suffering at altitude and any additional risks (i.e. transport, illness) kindred to these trips? From my experience, three fundamental elements outweigh the risks and define the success of expeditions and collaborations like Global REACH: the science, the experience, and the team.

Science

1 July 2018: Day 2 at altitude

“MAS FUERTE, MAS FUERTE, yeah Johnny!” Johnny, our first Andean participant is laying on the bed of testing Bay 1, currently practising a handgrip protocol for a vascular study. Johnny already has a venous catheter placed in his forearm and will be shuttled through a screening circuit: ultrasound imaging (cardiac, ocular and vascular), a maximal exercise test and assessment of total blood volume. Our Spanish skills are currently dismal, but we’re managing to compliment the amazing work of our translators to collect a large cardiovascular dataset on approximately 50 Andean participants.

3 July 2018: Day 4 at altitude

Four of us are working in the bloods room to measure total blood volume, hematocrit and viscosity. We knew from previous reports that Andeans would have augmented total blood volumes and hematocrit levels compared to us lowlanders but seeing those bloods ourselves was staggering. ‘A hematocrit of SEVENTY-EIGHT per cent!’ a colleague yelled, astounded. For reference, a lowlander’s normal hematocrit is ~40%. (Fig. 1) An undeniable passion for physiology underpins collaborations like Global REACH.

The energy amongst the group drives impressive productivity and allows us to complete multiple studies in relatively restricted time periods. During the 2016 Nepal Expedition our team conducted 18 major studies, including a total of 335 study sessions in just three weeks at 5,050 m (further to multiple sea level and ascent testing sessions). This high-density data collection is relatively uncommon outside of field work and is only made possible by the vast breadth of technical fluency, specific expertise and research experience amongst the team. The expeditions allow us to not only answer our current questions but further breed a multitude of ideas for future study.

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‘We could answer that one next, Ethiopia 2020? Another Nepal expedition?’ Of course, these expeditions allow us as trainees and investigators to be productive, and to present and publish high-quality data and exciting findings. They strongly contribute to our development and career progression in academia. But what is undoubtedly most important is the greater aim of Global REACH: to understand altitude health on a ‘global’ scale. This collaboration and research ultimately aims to understand why chronic mountain sickness occurs, how different high-altitude communities have adapted (or maladapted) to low oxygen, and what might ultimately be done to improve the health of individuals exposed to acute or chronic hypoxia.

Stay tuned for Part 2 next week, or read the full article in its original version in Physiology News magazine.

The First Mars Marathon: Part 3

Martian nutrition: How runners will fuel

Carb-loading for the Red Planet marathon might prove more difficult than simply gorging on a pre-race pasta dinner. Since they will be shivering and burning a lot more calories not only during, but before the race, runners will simply have to eat more on Mars during the pre-race period to fully saturate their muscles with glycogen.

Just getting plates of pasta to Mars will be a major issue. After years in transit, many of the nutrients in any food shipped to Mars will have been lost, and deep-space radiation will have degraded much of a food’s chemical and physical structure. Preparing and shipping food to Mars for the runners to eat requires special methods. Anyone care for high-pressure processed, microwave sterilized, freeze-dried spaghetti and meatballs…anyone?

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Use of critical fuels such as carbohydrate and fat will drastically increase on mars due to the extreme cold

Mid-race nutrition is equally important. As stated earlier, the drastically cold temperatures will result in a higher rate of glucose use and glycogen depletion, so the runners will need to fuel more often to keep glucose stores elevated in the face of increased use of these from shivering, coupled with the metabolic demand of running. Marathoners, who rely heavily on their glycogen stores into the later miles of the race will need to ingest glucose during the race at a rate exponentially higher than the recommended 25-60 grams per hour to avoid hitting the dreaded wall around mile 20 of the Red Planet marathon. This drink will likely have to be specially formulated with a higher glucose content.

Authors of a 1998 paper in Experimental Physiology provide evidence that providing a drink containing 15% carbohydrate was able to maintain blood glucose levels better than one containing just 2% during a cycling test to exhaustion (1). For this reason, Martian aid stations will need to occur at regular intervals and provide runners with carbohydrate-rich gels, drinks, or tasty freeze-dried space snacks.

What they’ll wear

Until we evolve into actual Martians, humans won’t get away with running unprotected on the surface of Mars. For now, technology will prove vital to success as runners on this new planet. Newly minted Martian sports scientists and gear technologists will be recruited to design a top of the line marathon-specific spacesuit.

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Theoretical concept of the Mars runner suit. Source: News.mit.edu

This suit will provide a sealed, pressure-controlled environment, help maintain some warmth and control body temperature, riding a fine line between protection and optimal range of motion. A protective suit is necessary: in the low atmospheric pressure environment of Mars, bodily fluids would boil. This is known as the Armstrong limit of pressure, which Mars sits well below.

Additionally, runners will develop severe impairments in blood pressure maintenance due to the reduced atmospheric pressure. This drastic reduction in blood pressure was demonstrated in a Journal of Physiology study from 2015 (2). Studying astronauts on the International Space Station, researchers noted a reduction in blood pressure of 8-10 mmHg, mainly due to central volume expansion.  The marathon gear will resemble something of a wet suit– a design which is able to solve the low-pressure problem by using super tight wrapping  (instead of gas-pressurization, it uses mechanical counter-pressure) (3). This leaves the body mobile. Wrapping the lower limbs in this counter pressure “fabric” will allow full range of motion at the ankles, knees, and hips,

The suit will require an enclosed helmet with breathing apparatus for runners to get their oxygen which is lacking in the Martian environment and dispense of the large amount of atmospheric as well as metabolically produced CO2. But don’t even think about attempting a snot-rocket.

Additionally, features of the suit crucial to completing our space-race might include an airtight hole in the mask so that runners can ingest their mid-race fluids and gel packs.

One final, and perhaps most vital feature will be the shoes. Just as elite runners have custom shoes designed to their unique gait pattern and foot size, Mars marathoners will need footwear tailored with the same precision and comfort in mind. As it turns out, the painful condition of onycholysis (separation of the finger/toe nail from the nail bed) is not just a problem among ultra-endurance athletes, but astronauts too. Ill fitting gloves combined with the intra-suit pressure can spell disaster (and pain) for anyone carrying out activities in space, and this would surely apply to the feet as well. After 26 miles of running in cramped space-boots, it can only be expected that runners might lose one or more toenails. To prevent this, it will be necessary for runners to have Mars boots fit to their particular foot size, strike, and biomechanics.

Can They Do It?

Just as Opportunity Rover completed its own Red Planet marathon, so too will humans eventually cover 26.2 miles on foot over the dusty red surface of the fourth planet from the Sun.

Will it be fast? Probably not – but let’s hope we break the current standing record of 11 years, 2 months. Evolving a new, skipping gait required for efficient running on Mars will take some time, just as did the adaptation of lower limbs and body structure of Australopithecus to that of the modern Homo erectus, a body ideally formed for endurance running. Tendons and ligaments will have to adjust to the new microgravity environment, and it will take time for muscle fibers to regain their strength and capacity. The deconditioning of the cardiovascular system (due to fewer hemoglobin molecules, reduced ability to both supply and utilize oxygen, and decline in heart and lung function) will take some time to adapt to. Along with the various environmental factors (extreme cold, hypoxia, and dangerous levels of radiation), runners will certainly have a slow marathon debut.

We will eventually design equipment and training protocols that allow us to traverse 26.2 in record times on Mars. Remember, the first marathon run by Pheidippides resulted in his keeling over in death upon arrival. Since then, we have perfected running tactics, advanced our knowledge of performance, and unlocked human physiology such that it is now possible for man to run 26.2 miles at an astonishing 4 minutes and 41 seconds per mile, something once thought impossible.

Perhaps, some day, the elusive 2-hour barrier will be broken, not on a curated and well-paced course in Italy, but near Endeavor crater, some 54.6 million kilometers away.

References:

  1. Galloway et al. The effects of substrate and fluid provision on thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in a cold environment in man. Experimental Physiology. 81 (1998); 419-430
  2. Norsk et al. Fluid shifts, vasodilatation, and ambulatory blood pressure reduction during long duration spaceflight. The Journal of Physiology 593.3 (2015); 573-584
  3. Shrink-wrapping spacesuits. Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office. September 18, 2014. http://news.mit.edu/2014/second-skin-spacesuits-0918