Early to bed and early to rise… makes a teen healthy, wealthy and wise? (Part 1)

By Gaby Illingworth, Rachel Sharman & Russell Foster; @OxTeensleep, @gabyillingwort1, @DrRachelSharman, @OxSCNi

Teenagers are well-known for routinely staying up late and then having a long lie-in. Sometimes this is put down to laziness or their transition from childhood into ‘Kevin the Teenager’.

However, there are biological reasons which help explain why teenagers are late to bed and late to rise, and why they might not actually be getting enough sleep to make them healthy, wealthy, and wise.

pn newsletter 2.JPG

Created by Matteo Farinella

Sleep matters. A wealth of evidence supports the importance of sleep for our physical, mental, and emotional functioning. Insufficient sleep has been linked to problems with attention, creativity, memory and academic performance, as well as increased impulsivity, and difficulties with mood regulation.

Sleep: a double-act

Sleep is driven by two processes working in tandem: the circadian rhythm and the drive for sleep (sleep homeostat).

The circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour cycle of changes in physiology and behaviour, generated inside our bodies. These rhythms come from certain genes being turned on and off (called clock genes) in almost all cells throughout the body. The master clock, (the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain), coordinates the rhythms within these cellular clocks.

The second system involves a balancing (homeostatic) process. Put simply, the longer you have been awake, the greater the need for sleep will become. The drive for sleep is thought to stem from a build-up of various chemicals (in the brain) while we are awake. For example, adenosine is a building block of our body’s energy currency (ATP), so it builds up as a consequence of energy use in the brain. Adenosine inhibits wake-promoting neurons and stimulates sleep-promoting neurons. As we sleep, adenosine is cleared and sleep pressure reduces.

Sometimes the two systems oppose each other. For example, we would feel very sleepy mid-afternoon due to increasing sleep pressure if it were not for the circadian drive for wakefulness.

alarm-clock-3236146_960_720.jpg

Sleep occurs when the circadian drive for wakefulness ends and the drive for sleep kicks in. Then when the ‘sleep debt’ you have accumulated during the day has been re-paid (and so sleep pressure is reduced), and the circadian drive for wakefulness is sufficiently strong, we wake up.

Why some people don’t like mornings

Some of us love to burn the midnight oil, while others schedule in regular morning runs. The technical term for your preferred sleep/wake timing is chronotype, what we colloquially refer to as being an owl or a lark. You are owl if your biological clock runs slower and a lark if it runs faster.

We don’t run on 24 hours

While our day runs on 24 hours, for most of us, our internal clocks don’t. Therefore, our internal clock needs to be adjusted daily by external time cues such as light intensity. The master biological clock receives light signals direct from cells in the retina, which are most sensitive to blue light.

Dusk triggers the production of melatonin (the ‘vampire hormone’). Although not a sleep-inducing hormone, melatonin serves as a cue for rest in humans, with levels increasing as we approach sleep and remaining high during the course of the night.

In contrast, dawn light suppresses melatonin levels. The circadian clock responds differently to light depending on the timing of exposure, so that morning light advances the clock (making us get up earlier) and evening light delays the clock (making us get up later the next day).

As well as playing a role in sleep regulation via the circadian clock, light affects how alert you feel. You may have noticed that bright light increases your alertness, so relatively bright light before bedtime will increase the likelihood that you will feel sleepier later.

—-

Stay tuned for next week’s blog about how changes in these systems affect teenage sleep.

Sleep across the animal kingdom

By Kimberley Whitehead, University College London

As creatures that spend a glorious one third of our lives asleep, we might be quick to assume that all animals on earth sleep.  Do they, and if so, how can we actually tell?

To understand the mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness better, physiologists often study animals. This is because their nervous systems are simpler, but still share similarities with ours. For example in animals with fewer genes involved in sleep, such as flies, it is easier to understand genetic effects. In the case of the zebrafish, life is made easier for neuroscientists who use this species because the fish is transparent when young, so the brain is visible and can be imaged in a living fish! However, if scientists study a fly or a fish, how can we tell that they’re asleep, especially if they don’t have eyelids?

Before we can look at differences in sleep between species, we first need to define criteria of sleep that we can apply to even simple animals. Firstly, sleep has to be reversible! If somebody was unconscious and couldn’t ever be roused, that would be a coma state, rather than sleep. Secondly, arousal threshold – i.e. what it would take to get a response – has to be increased during sleep, compared to wakefulness. For example, a cat will let you put all sorts of objects on it while sleeping, which it never would have tolerated when awake! Thirdly, sleep tends to happen at certain times of day, and in certain positions or situations: for us a nice comfy bed, for fish at the bottom of the tank.

In addition to these behavioural differences, if sleep is a distinct state from full consciousness, we would expect brain activity to differ. It turns out that indeed, even in flies, there is a difference in brainwaves between wakefulness and sleep. Brainwaves reduce in size as we fall asleep. Humans then go through cycles in which brainwaves get bigger and slower as sleep deepens whereas this is not apparent in flies for example.

cavefish_embryo_day5_cred_Monica_Folgueira_Steve_Wilson

Monica Folgueira and Steve Wilson, Wellcome Collection

Not only does sleep differ from wakefulness, it also varies across our lifespan. The sleep-specific brainwaves of adults are not present in baby rodents and humans. This suggests that sleep in early life may differ from sleep in adults.

Young animals also sleep much more. This extensive sleep in early life might be important for learning; baby flies deprived of sleep don’t learn how to find an appropriate mate. In mammals, there is some evidence that the twitchy movements babies have during sleep might help them to learn how to sense their environment.

Not only is sleep different in early life, it also differs in later life. In the elderly, changes in sleep patterns are seen across the whole animal kingdom. In both flies and humans, their sleep becomes more fragmented and elderly humans are more likely to report sleep problems than young adults.

mouse_embryo_day13.5_cred_Robert_Hindges_KCL

Robert Hindges, Wellcome Collection

Understanding the criteria of what defines sleep, and the normal changes in sleep across the lifespan, paves the way to understand sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. The brain circuits involved in narcolepsy are the same between zebrafish and humans. This offers exciting opportunities to understand these circuits better, because they’re so much easier to manipulate in fish. Aside from diseases which primarily affect sleep – like narcolepsy – many neurological disorders eventually affect sleep. This means that researchers using animal models can use sleep as a marker of overall brain health or degeneration.

Since there are ways to tell whether even simple animals are asleep, research about sleep across the animal kingdom can offer fresh insights into the million dollar questions of why we sleep, and what causes sleep problems.


This blog is based on a recent public engagement event at the Grant Museum of Zoology, put on by University College London and The Physiological Society. Surrounded by weird and wonderful pickled and stuffed animals, sleep scientists from University College London studying flies (James Jepson), zebrafish (Jason Rihel) and humans (me – Kimberley Whitehead) each brought a different angle to the discussion.

Follow these links to learn more about the research done by:

The Ultra Cycle Diaries – The Finish Line

by Daniel Brayson, King’s College London, @DrDanBrayson

Having never attempted anything like the Transcontinental Race before, my expectation ahead of the race was to complete it before the cut-off time, which was set at 15 days and 2 hours. In the very early stages of the race, I rode quite conservatively knowing that to finish within this time was critical for my sense of achievement. However, I very quickly realised I was capable of much more. I arrived at the first checkpoint in around 60th position, which surprised me. I then arrived at all the remaining checkpoints in higher positions than the previous one and was placed somewhere in the 30’s for the final checkpoint on the Transfagarasan highway in Romania.

The last hurdle

Approximately 1000 kilometres from the finish line in Meteora, I was in a good position to make a late charge for a top 30 position and I set about the task gamely. I rode through the remaining portion of Romania and a short section through Bulgaria into Serbia. Feeling hardened from the first 75% of the race I felt my performance improving rather than declining and set about three substantial climbs in northern Serbia with a certain amount of gusto and swagger. Temperatures were fierce, up into the 40°Cs, but I felt I had acclimatised to these by now and in my mind I was conquering these hills with no problems, better than any I had attempted previously at the height of the midday sun. Having capacity for only 1750 ml of water and a broken smartphone, I found myself rationing water as I couldn’t know when the next opportunity to resupply would arrive. I made up for it when I had the opportunity and guzzled litres at service stations but as it turns out, the damage had been done. Later that evening, when the sun had disappeared below the horizon and temperatures had dropped to the point it was “cool,” I started to suffer. I felt hot and restricted in my clothes despite the cool evening breeze; I became irritated by my clothes to the extent that I removed my jersey and rode shirtless for a while. After a little while longer, my feet felt hot and irritated too, so I took them out of my cleats and rode on top of those. Then suddenly my legs went completely: I’d hit a wall, pedalling felt like I was sitting on a ledge mixing cement with my feet, and I was overcome with delirium. I stopped at a service station and slept in a secluded area covered in pinecones for the night. I was so out of it I hadn’t noticed the pinecones at first, and stirred from sleep a few hours later to find myself cursing them wildly. At this point, I intended to crack on, but as I stood up I felt a wave of nausea overcome me, so I figured I needed more rest.

TCR_Hotel

In the morning, I ‘soft pedalled’ (rode slowly) for about 100 kilometres, at which point I came face to face with a steep hill at 1pm. Again, the temperature was up in the 40°Cs. With no obvious signs of shade on the sides of the road I looked around, feeling dejected. I had been riding next to a river and noticed locals frolicking in their bathers. I found a small quiet area and immersed myself, fully clothed, in a shallow part of the river and remained there in state of semi-consciousness for almost 4 hours. When the mid-afternoon sun was less fearsome I rode another 40 kilometres to the nearest town and holed-up in hotel for the next 8 hours. At this point, I could not stomach any solid food, and realised I was suffering at the hands of the extreme temperatures and heat exhaustion.

Lessons from the Transcontinental Race

At the time, I felt that I had not ridden at the right times of day in order to avoid the heat, and this point comes through as in my video diary. Now, as I reflect, I know that I couldn’t have ridden at night since I can’t suppress the urge to sleep then (remember response inhibition?) The logistics of trying to reverse my body clock in preparation for a race whilst performing a demanding vocation would be insurmountable. My feeling now is that I should have been better prepared to ride in the heat. Principally, I should have addressed two issues. Firstly acclimation: I should have trained for the heat. I didn’t, because being British I am not often enough exposed to extreme heat to actually appreciate the effects it has on human physiology and performance – and to believe these temperatures actually exist! However, training for heat has been shown to potentially benefit overall performance, not just performance in the heat, so if there is any chance of high environmental temperatures it is worth undertaking heat training regardless. Secondly, I should have allowed a greater carrying capacity for water and fluids. This was perhaps the biggest flaw in my preparation. At times I should definitely have been carrying at least 3 litres, if not more! I paid the price for this and by the time I had recovered I had to re-align my expectations back to finishing before the cut-off. So with the intention of managing my workload carefully, I gingerly clambered aboard my bike and set off for the finish line.

TCR_FinishLine

The finish line

After a calamitous final section in which I suffered a terminal failure of my rear tyre, I walked the final 7 kilometres, in suffocating heat, and arrived at the finish line in Kalabaka, Greece, in a foul and dispirited mood. I was robbed of the glory of rolling across the finish line, triumphant and fulfilled. Nevertheless, I had finished and I had finished 12 hours before the cut-off. On the lack of glory at the finish my final thought as I left Kalabaka to return to the UK was, ‘there’s always next time’.

The Ultra Cycle Diaries – Nutrition

By Daniel Brayson, King’s College London, @DrDanBrayson

In cycling very long distances as fast as possible, ultra-endurance cyclists use an extraordinary amount of energy. Replenishing these energy stores is critical for racers to maintain performance and stay competitive. To achieve this, riders do not simply settle for 3 square meals per day, or even 3 big meals a day, which would simply not be enough! Instead, we eat more frequently, and because we do not want to stop too often, this means eating whilst riding: “grazing on the go,” as it is affectionately referred to amongst cyclists. This involves eating an array of convenient snacks ranging from the healthy – bananas, oranges and kiwi fuits – to the energy packed goodness of carbohydrate and fibre rich wholegrain bars, nuts for fat replenishment, all the way through to the downright despicable: chocolate bars, Peperami and lots of jelly sweets. Did I mention ice cream? There was a bit of that too. The overriding consensus amongst riders is that a calorie is a calorie no matter where it comes from, and you take all you can get!

Fatigue 2

Biting more than you can use

Although it is intuitive to think that you need to eat a lot more to compete in these races, there is a limit to how much energy a human can take on board. Take the example of carbohydrates. The limit to how much carbohydrate can enter the bloodstream is dictated by a clever transporter system between our gut and our circulation. The ‘problem’ with this system, from the point of view of an ultra-racer, is that it can only transfer approximately 60 grams of carbs per hour from the gut to the bloodstream, maybe up to 90 at a push. In an ultra event, racers are likely to use much more. On top of this, this transport relies on an adequate blood supply to the gut to deliver energy to the system and facilitate it’s function. However, when cycling most of our blood supply is directed to the muscles because they are using so much energy. This can make this transport system slower and less effective and may lead to “gastrointestinal distress” – tummy ache to you and me! This is a common problem for ultra-cyclists, but it is even more common in ultra-runners, probably because of there is more jumbling up and down in the tummy, which I think is the technical terminology…

Measuring the loss of energy stores

If the human body is in a state where it can’t take on as much energy as it uses, it is likely there will be a net loss of energy stores in the body; this has actually been shown in a couple of studies which examined ultra cyclists. However, the magnitude of this deficit is up for debate. One study showed that it could be as much as 8000 calories per day, whilst another derived that it was a more conservative 1500 calories. This discrepancy is likely due to the fact that these studies chose very different methods of measurement. To add to these studies I attempted to use yet another type of measurement to see if I could determine my ‘energy status’ during the Transcontinental Race. I opted for measuring circulating glucose (sugar) and lipids (fats) by pricking my finger and then using an everyday device that a diabetic might use to monitor their blood sugar. Simple.

Or perhaps not. I found that when I measured glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, values were usually either the same as or higher than the resting values that I measured before the race, which goes against the hypothesis that I would be suffering from an energy deficit, and the data generated by previous studies. I can think of a number of mitigating circumstances. Firstly, I had devised a plan to take measurements pre- and post-meal. Yet, it quickly became obvious that I would rarely find myself in a pre- or post-meal state, because I ate so often. Timing of measurements was therefore erratic at best. Also, continually lancing my fingertips became a painful burden: my fingers were wounded and bruised for most of the time I was racing. Eventually, I decided it was too much of a hindrance, especially as my chances of finishing the race were already jeopardised by heat-induced illness. Heat also affected my appetite and ability to adequately digest: I was nearly re-acquainted with more than one meal towards the end of the race and spent the last two days eating nothing but ice-lollies.

In case you needed reminding, this was no walk in the park! Come back next week to find out if the ice-lollies got me over the line!


Make sure you follow the blog and subscribe to our Youtube Channel to keep up with the Ultra Cycle Diaries. Check back every Wednesday for a new blog and video!

The Ultra Cycle Diaries – Fatigue

By Daniel Brayson, King’s College London, @DrDanBrayson

Cycling 4000 kilometres as quickly as possible inevitably means that fatigue plays an important role, and those who manage and deal with it well are likely do best in endurance bike racing. Fatigue is the over-arching term to describe the inability of an individual subject to maintain a performance output over time; in the case of the Transcontinental Race, a very long time.

The reduction of the body’s energy stores is a key factor in the development of fatigue. Elite bike racing teams focus heavily on it to avoid what is affectionately known in cycling circles as ‘bonking’: feeling hypoglycaemic, with your legs turned to jelly, and mild dizziness. However, whilst fuelling is undoubtedly crucial, the Transcontinental Race provides the added challenge of being one long stage from start to finish: no daily finish lines, no support team and massage waiting at the end of every day. Therefore, developing a race strategy also includes deciding when and how much to rest and sleep, and route planning – both of which will impact on fatigue. Managing these components to optimise performance in the race is no mean feat especially when there are other factors to consider which are completely out of your control…

Fatigue graph

This plot of my power output over time shows an overall gradual decline in power during the race (red), which could be dure to a multitude of factors including the distance cycled and the increasing temperatures. ©Daniel Brayson

Response inhibition – the power of the mind

Due to the fiercely hot weather, a number of racers made the decision to cycle during the night and sleep during the day to avoid the hottest part of the day. This strategy didn’t work for me: I find it very difficult to inhibit my physiological urge to sleep at times that I would normally do so; this was no surprise, as I would famously fall asleep in nightclubs during my undergraduate years! Those who can resist these kinds of urges have what is known as a strong ‘response inhibition’: they are able to use the fortitude of their minds to ignore the desire of their bodies to sleep, and power through. They are likely to be successful endurance cyclists too, since they may also have a strong response inhibition to fatigue! The reason for this has been discovered recently: to a certain degree, fatigue is determined by the effort perceived by an individual rather than just the energy reserves available in their muscles (Marcora & Staiano, 2010). In fact, studies have shown that when a subject stops exercising because of exhaustion, there is still energy left in their muscles suggesting that it is the brain that is the limiting factor to performance!

Stress and physical performance

Remaining on the topic of the psychological components of fatigue, it is also now known that dealing with stressful situations can increase the effort perceived by an athlete and have a negative impact on endurance performance (Marcora et al., 2009). During the Transcontinental Race I encountered numerous stressful situations. For instance, I lost lots of my gear by just forgetting to re-pack it and leaving it in random places. I lost a pulse oximeter – a device to measure the oxygen saturation of my blood – before I got anywhere near a mountain, missing out on some nice data. My phone, on which I was heavily reliant for navigating and for performing an app-based psychological test called the Stroop test, broke because of the heat. I bought a new one and exchanged my sim card, only to realise 15 minutes down the road that I didn’t have it. I raced back to the shop – it wasn’t there. Retracing my steps, I could no longer determine if I was sweating through physical effort or panic! I finally found my brand new phone, just peeking out amongst the packaging in which it originally came: I had thrown it in the bin!!! Fatigue begets fatigue begets fatigue…


Make sure you follow the blog and subscribe to our Youtube Channel to keep up with the Ultra Cycle Diaries. Check back every Wednesday for a new blog and video!

References

Marcora SM & Staiano W. (2010). The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle? Eur J Appl Physiol 109, 763-770.

Marcora SM, Staiano W & Manning V. (2009). Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 106, 857-864.

The Ultra Cycle Diaries – Man vs Heat

By Daniel Brayson, King’s College London, @DrDanBrayson

A word of advice to budding ultra-cyclists: don’t climb steep hills in a heat wave! High temperatures came to define a large portion of my cycling race across Europe, especially the further eastwards I rode. On many days, the mercury pushed above the 40⁰C (104⁰F) mark and even reached 50⁰C (122⁰F) one day. The biological effects of physical exertion in high ambient temperatures are important to understand, especially if you plan on doing something like the Transcontinental Race.

Slowed down by Lucifer

Over exertion in the heat can increase core body temperature to an abnormal level and lead not only to a significant reduction in performance but more importantly to heat-related illnesses, such as heat stress, exhaustion and stroke. While these differ in severity, they share symptoms, including muscle weakness, dizziness, nausea and loss of appetite. I was acutely aware of the dangers of over-exerting myself in the heat, but because I was in a race, I did it anyway: competition is known to cause competitors to focus on the race so much they ignore sensory cues! That’s how I ended up climbing mountain roads that were not tree lined, in more than 40⁰C (104⁰F). Climbing up against the pull of gravity means the body has to work harder and consequently, generate more heat. You also go slower uphill, meaning there is limited moving air to evaporate sweat and cool the skin. The data I’ve collected show how temperature affected my performance.

graphsforblog

Take a look at these two climbs (in grey), that I did quite early in the race, on consecutive days: Timmelsjoch in Austria followed by Monte Grappa in northern Italy. If we look closely we can see that on average, temperature (orange) was much higher when I climbed Monte Grappa than when I climbed Timmelsjoch. And whilst heart rate (red) is similar, power output (white) is much lower during the climb to the summit of Monte Grappa – I even stopped completely to cool down. A decrease in power output could be attributed to fatigue from the first climb, except that I did much better on another huge climb even later in the race… when the average temperature was much lower!

Your body in a heat wave

At ‘normal’ temperatures, 10-25⁰C (50-77⁰F), exercise feels comfortable; if temperature increases to over 35⁰C (95⁰F), the same intensity of exercise gets more difficult and cannot be maintained as long. Why? In both settings, exercise increases the amount of heat produced by our metabolism, but the way the body copes with it is affected by the temperature. In lower temperatures there is a large difference between the body temperature (high) and ambient temperature (low). Heat naturally travels down a thermal energy gradient towards the lower temperature environment so the body gets rid of the extra heat easily (using convection, conduction and radiation for those of you who did GCSE Physics). In addition, and to facilitate greater heat loss, sweating allows the surface of the skin to cool when sweat evaporates; this process relies on the energy state change: evaporation of liquid sweat into gas uses up heat, leaving the skin cooler. Now, when the ambient temperature is above the core temperature the human body, the usual processes of convection conduction and radiation happen very slowly, if at all. The body then relies a lot more on sweating; however, sweating too much causes dehydration and excessive loss of salt and minerals called electrolytes, with severe implications for performance and health (Cheuvront et al., 2010).

For example, in hot conditions blood vessels near the skin dilate, allowing blood to flow closer to the surface of the skin to cool it down – hence the red face. Heart rate increases to help fill these now larger blood vessels, yet because of sweating and dehydration, blood volume and blood pressure go down, making it even harder to fill the heart: the volume pumped per heart beat actually becomes smaller! This creates stress on the heart whilst it works hard to pump blood to all of the body’s tissues and organs. These constraints definitely place a limit to how much humans can safely exert themselves in the heat (Gonzalez-Alonso et al., 2008)!

slope

Beating the heat

It is worth noting that a person’s ability to cope with high temperatures during physical exertion is not set and can be improved by training. For example, a two-week acclimation protocol of training at 40⁰C (104⁰F) ambient temperature can lead to increased sweating, retention of electrolytes by sweat glands and expanded plasma volume, all of which compensate, to a degree, for the problems highlighted above. But it’s important to note that you would need to drink more water, not less. It is a common misconception that acclimatising to heat means having to drink less water!

As for me, heat wasn’t the only thing that gave me trouble during the Transcontinental Race… tune in next week for a new episode.


Make sure you follow the blog and subscribe to our Youtube Channel to keep up with the Ultra Cycle Diaries. Check back every Wednesday for a new blog and video!

References

Cheuvront SN, Kenefick RW, Montain SJ & Sawka MN. (2010). Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration. J Appl Physiol (1985) 109, 1989-1995.

Gonzalez-Alonso J, Crandall CG & Johnson JM. (2008). The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat. J Physiol 586, 45-53.

Sir Roger Bannister and Exercise Physiology

Bannister_publicdomain_600pxBy Mark Burnley, University of Kent, UK.

On Saturday March 3, 2018, Sir Roger Bannister, the first person to run a mile in under 4 minutes, passed away. His run on the Iffley track in Oxford in May 1954 was one of the defining athletic feats of the 20th century. In reading Bannister’s autobiography, however, it is striking just how much one man managed to pack into life, and how relatively little of it was concerned with athletic performance. He was an amateur athlete whose career pathway was already chosen, and that career was clinical medicine.

Sir Roger Bannister was a neurologist first and an athlete second. This goes some way to describing how good he was at neurology! He published 81 papers on the part of our nervous system that controls involuntary actions like breathing (called the autonomic nervous system). He also wrote and edited several texts on disease in this system.

Bannister’s investigations of the physiology of the respiratory system during exercise took place during a research scholarship in the University Oxford’s Laboratory of Physiology in 1951. It may surprise you to know that this had nothing to do with his interest in athletics. Bannister was instead interested in respiratory control, and exercise was merely a means of testing stress placed on this system. This work was published in The Journal of Physiology in 1954.

In this study, he explored the effect of oxygen levels on the movement of air in and out of the lungs (called ventilation), and on physical performance. To do this he had participants, including himself, run at constant speeds and breathe room air, with 33%, 66%, and 100% oxygen. At the time, the reason for the reduction in ventilation and improvement in physical performance when breathing oxygen-enriched gases was not clear.

roger_bannister_2.jpg

Roger Bannister in 2009. © Pruneau / Wikimedia Commons, via Wikimedia Commons

Each of Bannister’s four participants is identified by initials, which is of course not allowed now. We know of three for certain (Bannister and his supervisor, Dr Dan Cunningham, who co-authors the paper, as well as Norris McWhirter [N.D.McW]). The latter was able to run with relative ease breathing 66% oxygen, and only terminated the treadmill test because “he had a train to catch”!

Throughout the paper, Bannister seems to interpret his results as a clinician: the participant’s subjective experiences of the tests seem almost as important as the respiratory variables themselves. In light of the sometimes extreme volume of data modern laboratory technology can produce, we shouldn’t forget to ask participants in physiological research how it felt.

Physiological research requires interactions with people in other ways too. In his acknowledgements, Bannister thanks, among others, Prof. Claude Douglas for help and advice. Where would exercise physiology be without Douglas? Everybody stands on the shoulders of giants. Even other giants do.

Sir Roger Bannister was special because he was an ordinary man who produced an extraordinary life’s work: on the track, in the laboratory, as a patron and administrator in sport and sports medicine, and in his clinical practice. His humanity shone through in everything he did, and his The Journal of Physiology papers are no different. Thanks for everything, Sir Roger.