The First Mars Marathon: Part 3

Martian nutrition: How runners will fuel

Carb-loading for the Red Planet marathon might prove more difficult than simply gorging on a pre-race pasta dinner. Since they will be shivering and burning a lot more calories not only during, but before the race, runners will simply have to eat more on Mars during the pre-race period to fully saturate their muscles with glycogen.

Just getting plates of pasta to Mars will be a major issue. After years in transit, many of the nutrients in any food shipped to Mars will have been lost, and deep-space radiation will have degraded much of a food’s chemical and physical structure. Preparing and shipping food to Mars for the runners to eat requires special methods. Anyone care for high-pressure processed, microwave sterilized, freeze-dried spaghetti and meatballs…anyone?

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Use of critical fuels such as carbohydrate and fat will drastically increase on mars due to the extreme cold

Mid-race nutrition is equally important. As stated earlier, the drastically cold temperatures will result in a higher rate of glucose use and glycogen depletion, so the runners will need to fuel more often to keep glucose stores elevated in the face of increased use of these from shivering, coupled with the metabolic demand of running. Marathoners, who rely heavily on their glycogen stores into the later miles of the race will need to ingest glucose during the race at a rate exponentially higher than the recommended 25-60 grams per hour to avoid hitting the dreaded wall around mile 20 of the Red Planet marathon. This drink will likely have to be specially formulated with a higher glucose content.

Authors of a 1998 paper in Experimental Physiology provide evidence that providing a drink containing 15% carbohydrate was able to maintain blood glucose levels better than one containing just 2% during a cycling test to exhaustion (1). For this reason, Martian aid stations will need to occur at regular intervals and provide runners with carbohydrate-rich gels, drinks, or tasty freeze-dried space snacks.

What they’ll wear

Until we evolve into actual Martians, humans won’t get away with running unprotected on the surface of Mars. For now, technology will prove vital to success as runners on this new planet. Newly minted Martian sports scientists and gear technologists will be recruited to design a top of the line marathon-specific spacesuit.

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Theoretical concept of the Mars runner suit. Source: News.mit.edu

This suit will provide a sealed, pressure-controlled environment, help maintain some warmth and control body temperature, riding a fine line between protection and optimal range of motion. A protective suit is necessary: in the low atmospheric pressure environment of Mars, bodily fluids would boil. This is known as the Armstrong limit of pressure, which Mars sits well below.

Additionally, runners will develop severe impairments in blood pressure maintenance due to the reduced atmospheric pressure. This drastic reduction in blood pressure was demonstrated in a Journal of Physiology study from 2015 (2). Studying astronauts on the International Space Station, researchers noted a reduction in blood pressure of 8-10 mmHg, mainly due to central volume expansion.  The marathon gear will resemble something of a wet suit– a design which is able to solve the low-pressure problem by using super tight wrapping  (instead of gas-pressurization, it uses mechanical counter-pressure) (3). This leaves the body mobile. Wrapping the lower limbs in this counter pressure “fabric” will allow full range of motion at the ankles, knees, and hips,

The suit will require an enclosed helmet with breathing apparatus for runners to get their oxygen which is lacking in the Martian environment and dispense of the large amount of atmospheric as well as metabolically produced CO2. But don’t even think about attempting a snot-rocket.

Additionally, features of the suit crucial to completing our space-race might include an airtight hole in the mask so that runners can ingest their mid-race fluids and gel packs.

One final, and perhaps most vital feature will be the shoes. Just as elite runners have custom shoes designed to their unique gait pattern and foot size, Mars marathoners will need footwear tailored with the same precision and comfort in mind. As it turns out, the painful condition of onycholysis (separation of the finger/toe nail from the nail bed) is not just a problem among ultra-endurance athletes, but astronauts too. Ill fitting gloves combined with the intra-suit pressure can spell disaster (and pain) for anyone carrying out activities in space, and this would surely apply to the feet as well. After 26 miles of running in cramped space-boots, it can only be expected that runners might lose one or more toenails. To prevent this, it will be necessary for runners to have Mars boots fit to their particular foot size, strike, and biomechanics.

Can They Do It?

Just as Opportunity Rover completed its own Red Planet marathon, so too will humans eventually cover 26.2 miles on foot over the dusty red surface of the fourth planet from the Sun.

Will it be fast? Probably not – but let’s hope we break the current standing record of 11 years, 2 months. Evolving a new, skipping gait required for efficient running on Mars will take some time, just as did the adaptation of lower limbs and body structure of Australopithecus to that of the modern Homo erectus, a body ideally formed for endurance running. Tendons and ligaments will have to adjust to the new microgravity environment, and it will take time for muscle fibers to regain their strength and capacity. The deconditioning of the cardiovascular system (due to fewer hemoglobin molecules, reduced ability to both supply and utilize oxygen, and decline in heart and lung function) will take some time to adapt to. Along with the various environmental factors (extreme cold, hypoxia, and dangerous levels of radiation), runners will certainly have a slow marathon debut.

We will eventually design equipment and training protocols that allow us to traverse 26.2 in record times on Mars. Remember, the first marathon run by Pheidippides resulted in his keeling over in death upon arrival. Since then, we have perfected running tactics, advanced our knowledge of performance, and unlocked human physiology such that it is now possible for man to run 26.2 miles at an astonishing 4 minutes and 41 seconds per mile, something once thought impossible.

Perhaps, some day, the elusive 2-hour barrier will be broken, not on a curated and well-paced course in Italy, but near Endeavor crater, some 54.6 million kilometers away.

References:

  1. Galloway et al. The effects of substrate and fluid provision on thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in a cold environment in man. Experimental Physiology. 81 (1998); 419-430
  2. Norsk et al. Fluid shifts, vasodilatation, and ambulatory blood pressure reduction during long duration spaceflight. The Journal of Physiology 593.3 (2015); 573-584
  3. Shrink-wrapping spacesuits. Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office. September 18, 2014. http://news.mit.edu/2014/second-skin-spacesuits-0918

 

The First Mars Marathon: Part 2

By Brady J. Holmer, @B_Holmer

Unlikely or not, it is interesting to ponder the physiological and technical challenges of a Martian marathon. Read our post from last week to learn why runners will be moving in giant leaps. Stride aside, how will the freezing cold, lack of oxygen, calorie requirements, and protective clothing affect the runners?

Cons of the Mars environment:

Temperature: beyond chilly

Race day conditions can be quite unpredictable even on Earth, and Mars will be no exception. Temperatures can vary from a moderate 70˚ F (20˚ C) around noon to an unbearable -195˚ F (125˚ C) at night. For the sake of this thought experiment, let’s assume that race day temperatures hover around the average of -67˚ F (-55˚ C).

At this temperature the blood vessels in many organs and leading to the skin will undergo profound constriction, reducing blood flow to areas where the runners don’t need it (that is, everything but the legs, brain, lungs, and heart). This conserves heat and maintains core body temperature as close to normal as possible.

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Average race day temperatures at select endurance races.

Authors of a classic 1998 paper in Experimental Physiology demonstrated that this constriction can occur even at a “mild” temperature of 45˚F (7˚C) for just 90 minutes (1).

Exaggeration of this physiological response in instances of extreme cold (i.e. Mars) would occur due to a condition called non-freezing cold injury (2). Symptoms include damage to vascular tissue and heightened constriction of blood vessels. This means runners will have trouble providing oxygen-rich blood to their working muscles which will be in competition with the core to maintain a survivable temperature. Frostbite on Mars sounds disproportionally painful.

Another main concern of extreme cold exposure will be the detrimental effects of shivering thermogenesis, the body’s involuntary quivering of muscles to produce heat in an attempt to maintain core body temperature. To do this, the body must use fuel sources such as carbohydrate and fat. This also occurs at even relatively “mild” cold temperatures.

A study appearing in a 2005 issue of The Journal of Physiology exposed a group of men to a temperature of 41˚F (5˚C) for just 90 minutes and showed that utilization of glucose and glycogen increased five-fold from normal resting conditions (3). Muscle glycogen, our stored form of carbohydrate, contributed up to 60% of the total increase in heat production during just moderate-level shivering.

Exposure to Mars level cold would exacerbate these effects in runners and lead to a sacrifice of valuable fuel stores in an attempt to stay warm, leaving little for the marathon effort. In a race over 2 hours such as the marathon, fuel partitioning is key, and glycogen stores become important late into the race. Without fuel to provide energy for muscle contractions, performance will inevitably suffer, even if proper nutrition and “carbo-loading” are implemented.

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Solar particle events will lead to a destruction of valuable red blood cells in space.

Oxygen deprivation in the air

Given the vast difference in the composition of the air, breathing on Mars will also be difficult.  The atmosphere of Mars is 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), meaning there is very little oxygen. Normally, CO2 is produced during high intensity exercise such as marathon running, but is counteracted by expiration, preventing accumulation of acidifying ions and the ensuing unpleasant burning feeling in the lungs and legs. In this regard, Mar’s atmospheric gas composition presents an ideal situation for the lung-torching turmoil that all runners fear late into the end miles of a marathon, although now, this will occur from the start. Even the most rigorous altitude training regimen won’t prepare Martian runners for the low-oxygen conditions they will experience. Well-designed spacesuits will need to be implemented to allow runners to inhale a gas composition that resembles one on Earth, while simultaneously helping to expire CO2 at a higher rate than usual.

Wreaking havoc with red blood cells

Let’s not forget about the radiation. Mars’ atmosphere is less dense than the Earth (approximately 100-fold less so), and radiation from the sun is much more potent. Spontaneous and largely unpredictable solar flares that decide to pop up during the marathon will send charged helium nuclei, neutrons, protons, and other dangerous and highly energetic particles coursing through the runner’s bodies. Exposure to one of these solar particle events during the Mars marathon would lead to the destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis) and along with it, the all-important, oxygen carrying hemoglobin molecules, oxidative stress, and damage to muscle fibers.

Runners will likely fall victim to a condition we might call “space anemia”. A study in Physiological Reports from 2017 investigated the response of the circulation to a head down tilt bed rest condition – used to simulate microgravity encountered in space – and found that it resulted in a loss of hemoglobin  (4)! Hemoglobin is necessary to carry oxygen to sites of active muscle during running, and a reduction  is associated with a lower exercise capacity.

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Aerobic capacity and power will both decline after just 15 days in space.

Reduced circulation

Circulatory changes may be further exacerbated by the well-known detrimental effects that microgravity has on aerobic capacity. Indeed, researchers have used a model of sustained bed rest further compounded by low-oxygen space environments such as Mars, to investigate the effects on cardiovascular capacity.

Keramidas et al. demonstrated in a 2017 Experimental Physiology paper that just 10 days in this space-simulating condition impaired whole-body peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) by 8% with an accompanying reduction in peak power output during an exercise test (5).

Furthermore, in 2018, Salvadego et al demonstrated in The Journal of Physiology that 21 days of hypoxic bed rest led to an 8% reduction in V02peak, a reduction in thigh muscle volume, and impairments in the body’s production of energy (mitochondrial respiration and aerobic metabolism) and an ability to match oxygen supply to demand during leg exercise (6).

These changes lead to a reduction in aerobic performance – and Mars runners will fight against all of these pathological changes as they try and complete the race as they find themselves starved of the ability to get crucial, oxygen rich blood to their working muscles during the race. This means that runners will be less capable of performing at their max capacity on race day.

So far, the prospects are looking quite grim for the runners. Will nutrition or protective suits be their saving grace? Find out on Friday in the final blog of our series.

References

  1. Weller et al. Physiological responses to moderate cold stress in man and the influence of prior prolonged exhaustive exercise. Experimental Physiology. 83 (1998); 679-695
  2. Tipton M.J. Environmental extremes: origins, consequences, and amelioration in humans. Experimental Physiology 101.1 (2016); 1-4
  3. Haman et al. Partitioning oxidative fuels during cold exposure in humans: muscle glycogen becomes dominant as shivering intensifies. The Journal of Physiology 566.1 (2005); 247-256
  4. Trudel et al. Hemolysis during and after 21 days of head-down-tilt bed rest. Physiological Reports. 5.24 (2017)
  5. Keramidas et al. LunHab: interactive effects of a 10-day sustained exposure to hypoxia and bedrest on aerobic exercise capacity in male lowlanders. Experimental Physiology 102.6 (2017); 694-710
  6. Salvadego et al. PlanHab: hypoxia does not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. The Journal of Physiology 000.00 (2018); 1-15

The First Mars Marathon: Part 1

By Brady J. Holmer, @B_Holmer

Humans have successfully conquered herculean feats of endurance in some of the most unbearable conditions on Earth. Such conquests as the Badwater Ultramarathon, 135 miles (217 km) through Death Valley, where temperatures can reach 130˚ F (54˚ C), or the 100k Antarctic Ice Marathon (average wind-chill -4˚F (-20˚ C)) not only require a certain amount of mental fortitude (some might call it insanity), but also careful consideration of human physiology and its inherent limits. Unpreparedness for such harsh climates can spell disaster; Mother Nature isn’t merciful to those who are ill-prepared. In tests of extreme endurance, environmental conditions, and the body’s response to those conditions, can be the dividing line between successful completion of the race and  a certain meltdown.

It is unlikely that humans will ever lose their aspiration to push the limits of human physiology through feats of endurance. Given humanity’s recent interest in colonizing planets other than our own, it seems likely that our sporting and recreation habits will make their way out into the cosmos.

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Images from http://alpacaengine.com/mars-landscape/ ; https://runningmagazine.ca/elite-qa/eliud-kipchoge-loves-running/ Photo: Nike 2018, Bejo Creative Theme 2018.

Indeed, Tesla CEO and Mars colonization proponent Elon Musk thinks that exploring new planets isn’t just a choice we have, but a necessity, and projects that the first manned trip to Mars will leave no later than the year 2020 (1).  Should we colonize Mars, humans will have stay active to prevent muscular atrophy, deconditioning, and boredom. Eventually, someone will have the crazy idea to try a marathon on the newly colonized Red Planet.

However sci-fi this situation may seem, it is interesting to ask what physiological and technical challenges a Martian marathon would provide. Will the vast climactic differences between Mars’ atmosphere and our own prove insurmountable? Will the elite road runners of our modern time be reduced to hobby joggers in the extreme climate? Or, perhaps even more tantalizing, will this novel atmosphere allow us to finally run a marathon under two hours? Let’s explore the physiology of humankind’s first marathon on Mars.

It may be important to note that the first Mars marathon has been completed, although not by a human. On Tuesday, March 24, 2015, Mars exploration Rover “Opportunity” completed the 26.219-mile (42.195k) journey across the Red Planet’s surface (2). Opportunity’s performance was quite mediocre, finishing in approximately 11 years and 2 months (a speedy pace of 222,000 minutes per mile). Let’s hope humans can improve on the current record.

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The first marathon route completed on Mars. Source: Mars.nasa.gov, Nasa 2015

Fortunately, thanks to Opportunity, we have a perfectly measured course, and the Red Planet marathon will follow the same route, putting the finish tape at the rim of Endeavor crater. On this journey, how will environmental conditions be different, and what adjustments will be required to nutrition and protective clothing? Stay tuned to find out.

The Martian environment

Will the environment on Mars be conducive enough to run, much less perform well in, a marathon, even for the most battle-hardened endurance veterans? Various factors about the climate, both positive and negative, affect physical capacity and physiological response.

Pros: A giant leap for mankind

One benefit, taking nothing else into account, is that runners will be lighter on Mars. Martian gravity is a little less than one third that of the Earth, so a man or woman weighing 154 pounds (70 kilograms) on Earth will weigh a mere 51 pounds (23 kilograms) on Mars. Many of the top-100 world class marathon runners typically weight around 123 pounds (56 kg) – so if we forget about the danger of “floating away” for a moment– this puts Martian runners way below the “elite” weight class.

Weight reduction will dramatically increase V02max (maximum oxygen use, which measures exercise capacity) relative to body weight without any training required! The transition to partial gravity will cause an immediate 67% increase in relative V02max. Compared to changes seen in an Experimental Physiology study in which V02max increased only around 9% after 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training (3), this is quite the shortcut.

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Source: Wikimedia Commons, NASA/JPL/Cornell

 

Another beneficial change upon arrival to Mars will have to do with the biomechanics of running.  Even if we design aerodynamic spacesuits which provide ample range of motion and reduce mass as much as possible, human locomotion will differ substantially; our running will look more like skipping, in fact. Apollo astronauts discovered the benefits of skipping on the Moon. A bouncing gait in the low-gravity conditions on Mars will also be preferred to walking and running since it leads to a threefold reduction in cost of movement. In addition to reducing work, skipping enhances grip control, which will be helpful on Mars’ surface. Covered by in “lunar dust”, it provides little in the way of friction.

Stride rate, typically 150-160 steps per minute for a marathon runner, will dramatically fall on Mars. This is mainly due to the large vertical displacement and increased time spent in the “flight” phase while skipping. Airborne time while running will be 80% longer in duration than on Earth, and stride length approximately 3 times as long. On Earth, the average stride length is 54 and 74 inches (1.3 to 1.8 meters) for men and women, respectively. This means that Martian marathoners will travel around 13.5 to 18.5 FEET (4 to 5.5 meters) per stride. Compare that to Usain Bolt, who has a stride length of about 7 feet (2 m). Talk about a “giant leap for mankind.”

The above changes, resulting in only a decrease in work and slight increase in biomechanical efficiency, may be the only beneficial alterations in running physiology on Mars – and it might look quite funny. Indeed, where gravity gives runners a benefit, the other environmental factors on Mars will all work against running a fast marathon.

Check back next week to learn how the freezing temperatures, and lack of oxygen impact the marathoners, as well as how they’ll fuel up and what they will wear.

References

  1. Elon Musk Has a New Timeline for Humans Living on Mars. June Javelosa. February 19, 2017. https://futurism.com/elon-musk-has-a-new-timeline-for-humans-living-on-mars/
  2. NASA’s Opportunity Mars Rover Finishes Marathon, Clocks in at Just Over 11 years. NASA release 15-049. March 24, 2015. https://www.nasa.gov/press/2015/march/nasas-opportunity-mars-rover-finishes-marathon-clocks-in-at-just-over-11-year
  3. Montero et al. Haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations contribute to the increase in peak oxygen uptake induced by moderate endurance training. The Journal of Physiology. 593.20 (2015); 4677-4688

Creating Champions: Road to the Olympics

By Kim Murray, Great Britain skeleton athlete, @KimMurray88

After years as a physiologist in elite sports, I thought I was pretty familiar with the life of an athlete. Then I became one myself: suddenly there was a team of support staff there to help me; numbers were being crunched and I wasn’t the one making the spreadsheet, but a data point on it. In the four years since I switched sides from exercise physiologist to full-time athlete in skeleton, I’ve gained a deeper understanding of the mental and physical challenges that drive an ever better performance.

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I now train full-time in Bath, alongside around twenty other British skeleton athletes. We have a team of coaches, sport science staff and medical support staff working alongside us to produce champions. On a day to day basis I work with a coach, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist. However, there is much more going on behind the scenes in terms of planning and data management as well as having access to nutrition, performance lifestyle and psychological support.

The life of an athlete is not quite what I expected. Day to day can be a grind; you must find something more within yourself when you’re tired to complete a session or pick up a new technique. You’re also constantly surrounded by super humans so although to the outside you seem physically unbelievable there is always a lot of internal competition and I can be very hard on myself. What has exceeded my expectations however, is what I have been able to achieve and experience, and the friends I have made in the short time I have been part of the team. You travel for half the year; visiting the most beautiful parts of the winter world, throwing yourself off the top of tracks, hitting 120 plus km/h (74 mph) and calling it work. Some days I just simply cannot believe this is my life.

 

The physiologist in the athlete

Having worked with athletes, I try to conduct myself in a way that I appreciated when working: filling in wellness and training data, minimising moaning, sleeping well, being honest about injury or illness. I remember what ‘athlete behaviours’ I should be striving to demonstrate and more to the point I know why they are important. I’ve spent enough time trying to get buy in from athletes and coaches to know how much more can be achieved when they comply. However, the emotion and enormity of what you’re trying to achieve can get to you; in my case, that is tightly linked with putting my physiology career on pause and the risk I took to follow the skeleton path. It can be a very testing environment and sometimes you just feel like your life is being determined by others or you’re not where you want to be in terms of making progress. In hindsight, these feelings are usually due to fatigue. When tired, you become less rational and the athlete behaviours can slip.

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Strength testing in the physiology lab

As the athlete, you’re not always involved in decision making and a lot goes on at a programme level that you don’t see. Our job is to put in the work, hit our goals and to grow as athletes and people. It is important to trust in the vision and direction of the performance director, coaches and support team. However, I sometimes find this difficult because I have a need to know why I do things. Having been part of athlete support teams, I am used to knowing the behind the scenes, so it was quite a big change to not always be a part of those conversations. If I am striving for a certain time on the push track or score on a physio test I ask why. Fortunately, as a more senior athlete I do now get to see more of what goes behind the training plans and goals. The team know my background so I quite often get to see a little more of the spreadsheet, as they know I am interested and will understand. This allows my inner spreadsheet geek to live on!

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Sprinting through a series of light gates is a way of measuring running speed

I don’t get to practise or apply exercise physiology in the way I used to. Yes, we use force plates and light gates, fill in wellness and training data, take part in special projects and so on, but when you’re the subject you’re not exposed to the same level of insight. What I am becoming though, is an expert of my body. How much sleep I need, what food I should eat, how I best warm up, what coaching cues help my performance, when I need more rest, what my peak power is, what a healthy body composition looks like for me. I am also further developing soft skills such as assertiveness, effective communication, team work and resilience. So, whilst I miss working as an exercise physiologist every day, I hope that this break will firstly, fulfil the desire to play the athlete and secondly grant me new skills and understanding from the athlete point of view that will be useful when I do return to work one day. In the meantime, I am giving skeleton my all and focusing on a huge goal: the 2022 Olympics in Beijing!

Creating champions: Physiology in elite sport

By Kim Murray, Great Britain skeleton athlete, @KimMurray88

I decided to be a sports scientist aged 13. It only struck me quite recently that this was quite a young age to settle on a career. I’d been identified as a talented athlete in the South and was selected to attend a training camp where a workshop introduced me to the concept of sports science. The idea that you could work to help athletes be faster, stronger, fitter, that you could be a part of their team, really hooked me. At that point, my ‘team’ consisted of me and my coach; I didn’t know there could be more.

Although I didn’t yet know about the various areas of sports science, after that day I set out to learn more to make this career path happen. It was during my placement year at the University of Bath that I chose to specialise in physiology. I loved the physicality of exercise testing: seeing athletes push themselves to incredible physiological limits. I am generally fascinated by the human body and liked the tangible nature of physiology compared to psychology for instance.

I craved the high-performance end of sport science. I, myself was competing at national and international competitions in the long jump and felt the most affinity with helping athletes at the top of their game, trying to find an extra couple of percent.

Helping athletes achieve their best

Six months after I graduated from my Masters at Loughborough University, I started working as a junior exercise physiologist at the sportscotland institute of sport. For the first time, I was part of a team of experts working to improve performance. I enjoyed the collaboration, learning from my colleagues and trying to answer the questions asked to make a performance impact. The work was very varied and I got to experience a lot of sports, national governing bodies, coaches and athletes. After a year or so I applied for an exercise physiologist role and graduated from my junior position, allowing me to lead physiology support in several sports. Highlights included being on camp with Scottish Rowing and working in the prep camp and village for the Glasgow Commonwealth Games. I felt like I could deliver the biggest impact when working in an integrated way as part of a performance team.

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Testing in the lab in Stirling. I’m with a colleague, Julie Erskine, and cross-country ski athlete Callum Smith. source: sportscotland

Every day was different. I utilised many aspects of exercise physiology to best support the coaches and athletes I was involved with. With athletics, there was a lot of work with the endurance group around altitude and exercise testing. The rowers who were students needed more education on hydration and recovery strategies as well as training monitoring in a camp environment. There were several female athlete projects focussed on athlete health and wellbeing. I ran an extensive project collecting GPS and heart rate data on the netball team to gather up-to-date information on match intensities and demands, and to inform training. The team also filled in wellness and training dairies which I monitored, intervening when appropriate to flag fatigue. All the data I collected was relayed to the multidisciplinary teams within each sport, the coaches and the athletes as appropriate to solve performance questions and positively impact the performance of the athletes or team.

Following the Olympic dream

I had my dream job, but I wasn’t entirely content. Seeing and working with, sometimes even being a part of the success of the athletes and teams brought with it a desire to play the athlete again. There is a buzz you get as a member of the support team but I wanted to know that buzz having delivered the performance myself. In 2014 I trialled for #powertopodium, a UK Sport and British Skeleton talent identification search for ‘the next Lizzy Yarnold, Olympic skeleton champion’. Lured in by the possibility of realising that Olympic dream, I thought it would be a good opportunity, although I didn’t have high hopes!

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After six months of physical testing, competing against 1000 other skeleton wannabes, I got selected for the fourth and final phase and went out on ice for the first time. This was the start of my transition to the ‘other side’. I now work with my own support team, and I’m currently training for the Beijing Olympics in 2022. Becoming the athlete has brought its share of challenges and a new mindset, but the physiologist in me remains curious about the behind the scenes.


Check back next week for the Part 2 of Kim’s blog: Road to the Olympics.

Europhysiology 2018: What’s in it for early career researchers

By Yvoni Kyriakidou, University of Westminster

As an early career researcher, presenting part of my PhD at Europhysiology 2018 will not only provide me with an opportunity to share my research, but it will also help me meet people in related fields to exchange information and expand my network. As this meeting will bring together some of the biggest physiological societies in Europe, I look forward to discussing work from many other institutions across the world. I hope to gain critical feedback on my work from the experts.

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I am currently a Doctoral Researcher in Bradley Elliott’s team, who is the leader of the Translational Physiology Research Group at the University of Westminster, London. I am studying the physiological pathways that lead to decreased performance and how these can be affected or induced by performing specific exercise protocols. My research also explores how ageing affects muscle function, human performance and health. Furthermore, I am investigating the impact of different nutritional strategies on offsetting this.

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This well-established conference is also an opportunity to learn more about the latest techniques and developments in the field of exercise physiology. I can also develop science communication strategies with other experts who also want to increase the impact of our research and inform the general public. Finally, at this interdisciplinary event, I will learn about different career pathways.

Europhysiology 2018 will provide me with extra motivation to gain deeper knowledge for and beyond my PhD journey.


By Pardeep Pabla, University of Nottingham

Europhysiology 2018 will be the biggest joint-society meeting that I have attended so far. As a young scientist, I always look forward to seeing the biggest names in our field present high quality science. It helps to put into perspective exactly what it takes to have a career in science, but it also serves as a timely reminder of how rewarding such a career can be.

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The coming together of experienced and enthusiastic academics with young, and equally enthusiastic, early career scientists alwaysprovides excellent opportunities to network, share ideas and gain new insights into each other’s work.

When possible, I try to steal a few moments of time from some of the more senior researchers and have found them very forthcoming with their advice and knowledge. I find that these moments help renew the excitement and enthusiasm I have for my research, qualities I believe are essential to longevity and success in an academic career.

I also greatly appreciate (and am guilty of taking for granted in the past) just how many opportunities these societies provide for early career researchers to showcase their work, and to witness new and emerging methodologies in physiology.

Having been a member of The Physiological Society for some time now, I can gladly say that I have made some friends along the way whom I look forward to catching up with at Europhysiology 2018. It is great to share stories from the lab and we always find some comfort in knowing that others share the same day-to-day challenges; the empathy that only fellow researchers can provide is warmly welcomed. A great thing about networking and talking to others is the realisation that our work utilises an extremely broad range of techniques and methodologies. Consequently, the wider impact of our work is astounding.

From a personal point of view, I am looking forward to the atmosphere of a big meeting. There is often a sense of excitement around these meetings, balanced with a welcoming and relaxed vibe.

 

Experience intellectual, social and cultural London: Europhysiology 2018

By Dan Brayson, King’s College London, @DrDanBrayson

Join us in London for Europhysiology 2018 to experience all sides of London’s metropolitan lifestyle – intellectual, social and cultural!

The esteemed poet and writer Samuel Johnson wrote in 1777, “when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.” As a current resident I must confess it is as true today as it was 241 years ago.

The reasons for this are many. From the perspective of intellectuality, I find, as an academic researcher, that London is a melting pot of so much excellent research and innovation. I am a researcher at King’s College London and the fact that we share the city with Imperial College, University College London, Queen Mary University and the newly minted Francis Crick institute, means that I constantly find myself able to attend symposia and forums during evenings and weekends, more than you could wave the proverbial stick at.

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These have enabled me to observe all of the excellence occurring at the frontier of scientific research as well as broaden my appreciation of what can be achieved as a person of science in any capacity and helped me to meet people who have done things a little differently. My post-doctoral funding runs out in six months, and I don’t have anything concrete planned, yet I am relaxed about my situation because of these experiences and interactions.

With regards to sociality, London indeed has all that life can afford. There are thousands of metaphorical and literal drinking vessels to enjoy, many of which have quirks (or “USPs” for the jargon inclined). These include places to dance and drink, take part in immersive theatre and drink, play ping pong and drink, even stand on a boat and drink. Whether you prefer the razzmatazz of cocktails or the seedy drinking holes which hark back to a bygone era, London has it all. London also has a surprisingly large number of green spaces if you just wanna hangout in the sunshine (but don’t forget to bring an umbrella).

Perhaps London is most famous for its culture. London is densely packed with small venues which on any given day of the week will be showcasing live music, comedy acts, poets, players and writers. The same is true on a grander scale (if you like Coldplay or One Direction…). If you need a fix of Andrew Lloyd-Webber, the West End is your tonic as it shows a constant stream of the most famous musicals you’ve ever heard of.

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Museums are plentiful. The British Museum plays host to the Rosetta Stone and contains thousands of other archaeological artefacts (the good kind of artefact), the Science Museum is worth a look in (predictably) but the jewel in the crown is the Natural History Museum. There are the impressive buildings, many are a historic legacy to a founding member of the Royal Society, Christopher Wren, who by accounts, single-handedly re-designed London after the great fire of 1666. Monument is a personal favourite of mine since it was an attempt to build the largest telescope to date in collaboration with Robert Hooke, another founding member of the Royal Society. Did I mention that the Royal Society was founded in London with Isaac Newton installed as its first president?

Europhysiology 2018 will be hosted on the backdrop of Big Ben (currently under refurbishment) and Westminster Abbey, both fascinating and imposing structures sitting right next to the River Thames. The latter is a place of burial for historic figures of esteem which include scientists Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Stephan Hawking as well as someone who, by reasoning, must have grown tired of London eventually, Samuel Johnson.