Category Archives: Annual theme

Getting stressed out at the Lancashire Science Festival

By Rachel Boardman, University of Nottingham, UK, @boardventures

Two weeks ago, I formed part of The Physiological Society’s team of enthusiastic volunteers in the Biology Big Top area of Lancashire Science Festival. Dressed to impress in our ‘I love physiology’ t-shirts, we were all set to engage our audience about the effects of stress on the body.

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After measuring a participant’s blood pressure and heart rate we would then expose them to either a mental or physical stress. The mental stress consisted of playing whack-a-mole – a version of the popular arcade game where you hit the mole when it lights up – while being asked maths questions. Evil, right?

I had a go, to errm test it out, and one of my fellow volunteers challenged me to count backwards from 100. Not so bad, I thought. She then added, “In 7s.”

“Oh errm.. 100, 93… errr…86. Yeah I’m out.”

A few of our participants were amazingly good at this (unlike me) while some heard the word maths and immediately opted for the physical stressor, the cold pressor test.IMG_2518

This involved sticking your hand in an ice-cold bucket of water for 1 minute (we toned it down to 30 seconds for the younger children because we’re not harsh). The shock on each participant’s face as they realised how cold the water actually was followed by the realisation that a whole 60 seconds doing this was far longer than they had realised. Most showed clear signs of discomfort, squirming and fidgeting in their seat, increasing their breathing rate and even providing a running commentary on just how they were feeling, but there were others that sat quite still with a wry smile on their face that said ‘this isn’t that cold’.

Once we had suitably stressed our victims participants out, we measured their blood pressure and heart rate again. What would you expect to happen?DEcsbysXUAAdU07.jpg

Well, if you know anything about science, then you will know that it doesn’t always go to plan. That is precisely what happened to us. The majority of people’s blood pressure and heart rate did increase. However, we also had participants who seemingly reacted to these stressors by relaxing, or for whom only blood pressure or heart rate changed. That’s science, guys!

Read Rachel’s full article on her blog, The Boardventures.

Running away from stress…literally

By Molly Campbell, University of Leeds, @mollyrcampbell

Exercise – for some, it’s a hobby, for others, a burden. We all know exercise is good for us. Yet, ironically, many people feel too busy or stressed to exercise regularly. Particularly during exam time, who wants to swap an hour of revision for an hour of tiring yourself out?

Research actually suggests that committing to exercise when you are experiencing stress can lower your stress response both now, and in the future. Regular exercise can be particularly helpful in boosting your mood, and thus your motivation to do work. Scientific research suggests that exercise elevates molecules in the body associated with the feeling of joy, whilst decreasing those that cause stress.

Post-exercise feelings of bliss

The term ‘runner’s high’ was coined in the 1970’s following an apparent worldwide increase in the number of people running long distance. This feeling of elation was attributed to the increased levels of endorphins in runners’ blood after exercise. Since then, many studies have been conducted that expand on this work to clarify exactly how exercise produces this ‘feel good’ effect.

Exercise also increases the release of endocannabinoids in the body. These are a type of cannabinoid that are endogenous, meaning they are made within our body. Endocannabinoids serve as a message between cells. Cells receive the message when the endocannabinoid attaches to another molecule, called a receptor, on the outside of a receiver cell. The receiver cells for endocannabinoids are in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) as well as other parts of the body. This elicits a wide range of beneficial effects.

The chemical anandamide, one type of endocannabinoid, gets its name from the Sanskrit word ‘ananda’ meaning joy. It is created in areas of the brain involved in motivation, memory, and higher cognitive function. Whilst its exact function has not been clarified, increased levels of anandamide are associated with states of heightened happiness. Anandamide can enter the brain through the so-called blood-brain barrier. This means that an increase of anandamide in the blood is followed by an increase of the chemical in the brain.

An experiment by Elsa Heyman and her colleagues demonstrated that, following a period of intense exercise, cyclists have increased levels of anandamide in their blood (1). This increase in anandamide was correlated with the increase of a molecule that is extremely important for the growth and maintenance of neurons in the brain, called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Johannes Fuss and his colleagues used mouse models to demonstrate that exercising on a running wheel produced a significant increase in anandamide levels, which was correlated with a substantial reduction in anxious behaviours (2). When the researchers gave the mice a drug to block the cannabinoid receptors, to which anandamide binds, this reduction in anxiety was reversed.

Together, these findings therefore suggest an emerging role for the endocannabinoid system in producing the feeling of well-being and stress relief people experience after exercise. However, anandamide is broken down in the body very rapidly, possibly explaining why exercise is most beneficial when done regularly.

Sweat away your stress

Susanne Droste and her colleagues investigated the short-term effects of exercise on stress hormones in mice (3). Adult male mice were provided access to a running wheel for four weeks before undergoing a series of behavioural tests. Exercising mice were found to exhibit a significant decrease in corticosterone (the equivalent of the stress hormone, cortisol, in rodents) responses to a novel environment compared to control animals that had not exercised. These animals were also found to be less anxious in behavioural tests.

Researchers have also found long-term changes in the stress response after repeated exercise. Mindfulness experts suggest exercise, such as running or yoga, can indeed be a meditation practice carried out ‘on the go’. By placing focus on the repetitive movement of our joints and the increase in our heart rate, and the general effects exercise exerts on our body, we are distracted from the thoughts circling through our mind. Repeatedly applying this focus, particularly when high levels of stress cause us to be entangled in our thoughts, can produce long-term changes in the bodily tools we rely on to calm down. Ann Kennedy and her colleagues found that several studies show that this improves breathing rate and depth, lowers heart rate, and increases our ‘rest and digest’ response, or the so-called parasympathetic nervous system (4).

Although it may seem a chore to take time out of the day to get your body in motion, research about our physiology suggests that your brain (and therefore your grades) will benefit from doing so!

References:

  1. Heyman, E. Gamelin, F.X., Goekint, M., Piscitelli, F., Roelands, B., Leclair, E., Di Marzo, V. and Meeusen, R. 2012. Intense exercise increases circulating endocannabinoid and BDNF levels in humans—possible implications for reward and depression. 37(6), pp. 844-851.
  2. Fuss, J. Steinle, J., Bindila, L., Auer, M., Kirchherr, H., Lutz, B. and Gass, P. Runners high depends on cannabinoid receptors in mice. PNAS. 112(42).
  3. Droste, S.K., Gesing, A., Ulbricht, S., Muller, M.B., Linthorst, A.C and Reul, J.M. 2003. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Endocrinology. 144(7), pp. 3012-3023.
  4. Kennedy, A. and Resnick, P. 2015. Mindfulness and Physical Activity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 9(13), pp. 221-223.

 

The Glastonbury of Neuroscience

By Anjanette Harris, University of Edinburgh, @anjiefitch

I have been to many music festivals in my time, but last month I went to my first Neuroscience Festival. Every two years, the British Neuroscience Association holds the Festival of Neuroscience, which boasts a jam-packed program of research talks from experts across many disciplines within neuroscience, as well as workshops and discussion forums. It is quite simply the national celebration of neuroscience.

Last month, nestled amongst the canals of Birmingham, the International Conference Center provided the perfect backdrop for over 1500 scientists from around the world to get together, share their latest data, and enthuse one another. This year, The Physiological Society hosted a strand running through the festival called The Neurobiology of Stress as part of their annual theme Making Sense of Stress. One of the symposia, organised by Professor Megan Holmes, brought together researchers from around the world, including myself, to present our work on imaging the emotional brain.

What puts us at risk of depression?

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Dr Stella Chan, a lecturer in clinical psychology from the University of Edinburgh, kicked off with the staggering statistic that half of all cases of depression first occur in adolescence. Stella reminded us that adolescence is a tricky time in which teenagers struggle with intense emotions on the road to self-discovery. But why do some youngsters develop depression while others don’t?

To answer this question, Stella studies how young people perceive themselves and the world around them. One startling finding is that those at risk of depression find it harder to see joy in other people’s faces. Because Stella uses teenagers at risk of, but not yet suffering from, depression she is able to see if there are changes in perception that may flag up that a youngster is likely to develop depression. If Stella can untangle whether a negative self-opinion is the cause or consequence of depression, she may be able to develop mind-training techniques to prevent depression in those at risk.

Untangling cause and effect using mice

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Dr Marloes Henckens, a post-doctoral researcher from the Donders Institute at Radboud University, presented her work on the effects of stress on brain function. She uses both human and mouse subjects to help her distinguish between cause and effect. Marloes began by setting her work in context; she highlighted that the brain is a collection of networks and that brain disorders are probably caused by disorders of the connections between different networks.

With that in mind, Marloes showed that stressing humans or giving them stress hormones caused the connections that make up the fear network to become stronger. While this is useful for priming a person to tackle danger, it may lead to an anxiety disorder, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which suffers are haunted by intense unpleasant memories. Marloes takes pictures of the brains of mice with PTSD-like symptoms and has shown that reduced activity at the front of the brain (important for reducing unpleasant memories) is a consequence and not the cause of PTSD. It remains to be seen how connections between different networks are affected in mice with PTSD.

Hormonal influences on brain activity in rats
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The following speaker, Professor Craig Ferris of Northeastern University, is the pioneer of imaging rats’ brains while they are awake. Craig began with a whistle-stop tour of the groundbreaking technology that he and his team have developed. His special scanning technology allows researchers to monitor brain activity while the rats are responding to things. For example, Craig showed changes in brain activity in mother rats as their pups start to suckle. It comes as no surprise that the brain areas involved in reward and motivation are active with breast-feeding. In fact, in these rats, breast-feeding is more rewarding than cocaine!

Craig then presented images of brain activity involved in aggression. To observe this, he first took pictures of the brain of a male rat that was happily lying in the scanner with its girlfriend, and then introduced an unfamiliar male rat and observed the changes in the first rat’s brain. The abrupt change in brain activity that was seen in the male rat’s brain might be described as blind rage, as it is similar to that observed with the onset of a seizure. Craig’s ambition knows no bounds: he finished his talk with musing on whether he could fit a killer whale into his brain scanner!

The impact of stress on emotional memory in rats

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The final speaker was me, Dr Anjanette Harris. I’m a post-doctoral researcher from the laboratory of Megan Holmes at the University of Edinburgh. I want to understand how stress affects brain function. This is particularly tricky to study in humans, especially if we want to look at the effects of early life stress on the brain, so we use rats (read more on the importance of using rodents in psychiatric research in my previous blog post). The work that I presented uses the technology of Craig Ferris coupled with memory exercises for rats that we specialize in designing. We have shown that rats that experience stress in early life form stronger memories of unpleasant experiences. These rats also have stronger activity in brain areas involved in fear when recalling unpleasant experiences in adulthood. This mirrors what is found in humans and means that we may be able to test potential therapies for human memory disorders on rats, ensuring that the treatments target appropriate areas in the brain.

Just Take A Breath

By Molly Campbell, University of Leeds, @mollyrcampbell

Take deep breaths. Try to relax. Stay calm. In stressful situations, this is the advice we often receive. More often than not, this tends to work.

What you might not be aware of is that this advice is thousands of years old, and is also supported by extensive scientific research. You’ve heard of the Buddha, right? At the core of the Buddhist teachings of mindfulness, meaning focusing on the present moment, is placing attention and focus on the breath. This has beneficial effects on our nervous system and subsequently our health.

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Picture this. You are revising a particularly hard topic, perhaps a subject that you desperately need to ace to secure your college or university place. A train of thoughts frantically rushes through your brain and you panic. I’m not going to get the grade I want! I’m not going to get my college place and this will ruin everything for me! Sound familiar?

In these situations, our ‘fight or flight response’ (the sympathetic nervous system) can go into overdrive. Our heart rate increases, as does our blood pressure. This stress response actually limits the function of some of our vital organs – most notably the digestive system. It also limits our cognitive abilities, making it difficult to focus on the task at hand. So where does breathing come into the equation?

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The breath is interesting because we can control it despite it being a function of the autonomic (or subconscious) nervous system. Pranayama, or ‘yogic breathing’ involves manipulating and deepening the breath; by doing so we cultivate awareness and consciousness that actually allows us to take the reins and stimulate our ‘rest and digest’ response (the parasympathetic nervous system), inducing relaxation.

How does this work? The vagus nerve, coined the ‘mind-body’ connection, is the longest nerve in the body. To avoid delving too deep into its anatomical route, let’s just say it innervates many organs and regulates many important functions. In the early 1900s, the German physiologist Otto Loewi found that simulating the vagus nerve reduces heart rate by releasing a substance that he called ‘Vagusstoff’. We now know that ‘Vagusstoff’ is actually the chemical acetylcholine that affects brain activity.

When we breathe deeply using our diaphragm, we create pressure in our abdomen that stimulates the vagus nerve to secrete acetylcholine. Acetylcholine slows down the heart and increases the activity of the digestive system.

Stimulating our ‘rest and digest’ response also inhibits our ‘fight or flight response’. One effect of this is decreasing the release of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. This then reduces the action of adrenaline in the brain. This is another mechanism behind the physiological workings of breathing for relaxation.

In March of this year, scientists in Italy measured the physiological and psychological responses of students who performed deep breathing (Perciavalle et al., 2017). Considering that the 38 volunteers were university students, the findings are particularly relevant to exam stress. Half of the 38 volunteers did deep breathing exercises once a week for 10 weeks.

The exercises included paying attention to how one breath differs from another, and contracting and releasing the muscles. After 10 weeks, students had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and lower heart rates.

In focusing on deepening the breath, we calm the nervous system and prevent our body going into ‘fight or flight’ overdrive. This sense of calm and clarity can help bring our attention to the present moment. Our anxiety about exams is regarding the future (What will happen if I fail?) or based on a mistake we made in the past. Using the breath to be present and aware allows us to focus on the now, on the task at hand. So, in times of stress – just take a breath!

References:

Nezlek, J., Holas, P., Rusanowska, M., Krejtz, I. 2016. Being present in the moment: Event-level relationships between mindfulness and stress, positivity, and importance. Personality and individual differences. 93(2016), pp. 1-5.

Bordoni, B and Zanier, E. 2013. Anatomic connections of the diaphragm: influence of respiration on the body system. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 6(281-289)

McCoy, A. and Tan, Y. 2014. Otto Loewi  (1873-1961): Dreamer and Nobel Laureate. Singapore Medicine Journal. 55(1), pp. 3-4.

Perciavalle, V., Blandini, M., Fecarotta, P., Buscemi, A., Di Corrado, D., Bertolo, L., Fichera, F. and Coco, M. 2017. The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurological Sciences. 38(3), pp.451-458.

Mindfulness matters to physiologists

Excerpt from a Physiology News feature by Lee de-Wit, @leedewitInstitute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge, UK & Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, UK

Our minds are often busy planning the future or thinking about the past. Mindfulness involves becoming more aware of what is happening right now. That might involve becoming more aware of feelings in your body. It might involve becoming aware of the sensations of your breath. It might simply involve becoming more conscious of the fact one’s mind is thinking about the future or the past.

This practise of mindfulness has proved effective in treating certain clinical conditions, and can influence behaviour on a range of tasks. In parallel to this, there is also a large body of evidence showing that mindfulness has a range of measurable outcomes on both neural activity and even neural structures. Research on mindfulness not only helps us to understand this practise per se, but has also increased our understanding of plasticity and localization of functions within the adult human brain. […]

Secular mindfulness without Buddhism

Mindfulness is a relatively recent approach that extracts some of the core teachings from Buddhism and reformulates them as a secular practise to help patients recovering from chronic pain or to deal with stress. This approach was first pioneered by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Massachusetts University Hospital. […] Jon Kabat-Zinn developed a secular program of mindfulness training that focused on developing some of the key skills involved in Buddhist meditation and awareness training. He formalised this approach as an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course. This model was then further developed by Mark Williams and colleagues at Oxford, who developed the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) course. This 8-week MBCT course was developed over 10 years ago, as a treatment to prevent the relapse of patients who have suffered multiple episodes of depression. Two recent meta-analyses have provided evidence that MBCT offers an effective treatment in preventing relapse for patients who have had depression (Kuyken et al., 2016), and in the treatment of mood and anxiety problems in clinical populations (Hofmann et al., 2010).

At its most simple, mindfulness is about becoming more aware of one’s experience of feelings, emotions, thoughts and mental and bodily state in the present moment. […] When you first start, you’ll realise just how much the mind wanders off when you try and focus on a simple aspect of your present moment experience. Critically however, mindfulness doesn’t mean one starts judging oneself for having a mind that wanders off, rather one seeks to acknowledge one’s wandering mind and patiently learn the skill of bringing it back to the present moment.

To really develop this practise, it can be useful to have extended periods of meditation where you focus on areas of your body, or the sensation of your breathing in a formal meditation posture. Mindfulness isn’t just something you do sitting on a mat on the floor however. You can mindfully eat your dinner, mindfully draw a picture, mindfully read an article about mindfulness.

How meditation can change your brain

I sometimes think that one of the most important and under-communicated (to the general public) findings of the last 50 years is just how remarkably similar our brains are. More recently however, there has been an increasing recognition that our brains sometimes differ in ways that have interesting functional and theoretical consequences. […]

In 2004, meditation joined the list of factors that were associated with changes in the brain’s structure. Building on work from the previous year, showing that the brains of experienced meditators had higher levels of coherent activity (Lutz et al., 2004), researchers at Harvard, Yale, MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital found that there were also large-scale differences in the structure of certain areas of the brains of experienced meditators (Lazar et al., 2005). These changes were not random, they were found in areas of the brain that could be logically interpreted given the skills practised in meditation. In particular, one of the areas that was larger in experienced meditators was the insula. This is an area of the brain that we know is important in interoception, the perception (visceral, not visual) of our own body. Given that mindfulness often involves the development of a greater awareness of one’s present moment bodily experience, it seems logical that the area of the brain that seems to be involved in that would be one of the areas to be influenced by long-term mindfulness practise.

Read the full article in Physiology News.

References:

Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 78, 169-183 doi:10.1037/a0018555

Kuyken W, et al. (2016). Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in prevention of depressive relapse: an individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized trials. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 565–574 doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0076

Lazar SW, et al. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport 16, 1893–1897.

Lutz A, Greischar LL, Rawlings NB, Ricard M, Davidson RJ (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 16369–16373 doi:10.1073/pnas.0407401101

 

Perceptions of Stress

By Andy Powell, @DrAndyDPowell, Birmingham City University

Sleepless nights, sweaty palms, lack of appetite – the physiologist in me recognised the classic symptoms of the stress response. So why was I stressed? I have a loving family, a crazy border terrier who thinks he is still a puppy, and a job as university lecturer that I love.

First, a disclaimer. I recognise that the circumstances that left me displaying symptoms of stress were short term and had a definite resolution, but those circumstances and more importantly my reaction to them was an eye opener to what simple things can trigger a period of stress.

I was up at night tossing and turning thinking about “Fun and Brains,” a public outreach event I helped organise at British Neuroscience Association’s 2017 “Festival of Neuroscience”. The activities brought together art and neuroscience.  A performance artist explored the role of memories, participants built neurons, and speakers presented about how the brain works at all ages.

“Perception Playground” was the title of my activity. Participants of all ages explored how simple tasks can be affected by altering perception. They coloured in neurons and played table tennis with vision-altering prism glasses on. They saw first-hand why drunk-driving is a big no-no (drunk goggles + remote control car = absolute carnage).

My personal favourite was the headphones that create a small delay between the person’s speaking and hearing. It really affects your ability to speak! People were generally only able to get a few words into a sentence before ripping off their headphones. A common coping strategy was to shout, presumably to be heard through the headphones. I considered the activity a success when I had a bunch of kids shouting about how the brain works.

We did have one participant who was totally unaffected, which we put down to the fact that she was a regular user of Skype to call home. The regular breaks Skype introduces somehow conditioned her brain (I am sure there is a great research project in there somewhere).

I thought this would be right up my street. I am a STEM ambassador and I absolutely love sharing my passion for science. I mean, who in their right mind would go to the Big Bang Fair and stands for 6 hours, with their hands in gunge, explaining to school students who have fished an organ out of a simulated surgical patient, what those organs do (that would be me). What I love most is answering those completely out-of-left-field questions that only a child knows how to ask.

So why was this the most stressful thing I have ever done (even worse than my PhD viva)? I think the big difference here was that I was flying solo on the organisation of perception playground.  Remember my crazy border terrier? It’s like that moment as a puppy when he embarrasses you in the middle of a crowded town centre by peeing in an inappropriate place.

Perception playground was mine, but part of a larger whole – and nobody wants to let others down. So right from the beginning that internal pressure was different from previous experiences.  I would lie awake at night thinking: Have I booked the volunteers? Have I organised the activities correctly? What if the weather is bad (it was held outside)?

All the while the physiologist in me would be screaming – control your breathing, slow your mind – often to no avail.  Set-backs along the way didn’t help – the funding I applied for didn’t materialise.  Normally this is a not a problem. I have a thick skin from years of rejected grant applications and papers, but on top of the internal pressures it quickly became a screaming matter. Even the thought of writing my first blog post was a source of major stress. Who’d have thought that it would almost write itself?

So how did it go?

It went wonderfully. I would do it again in a heartbeat. It would however be remiss of me not to thank all of the volunteers who gave up their precious time and offered their valuable knowledge. Without them it would not have been possible.

Participants appeared to enjoy themselves and take away some nuggets of knowledge; a comment from one participant sums up why I do outreach – “Thank you for teaching me about my brain, I never considered what it does before”.  Hopefully that girl is now inspired to study neuroscience, and will present her PhD work at the 2029 “Festival of Neuroscience”.

What has it taught me?

I hope that I haven’t come across as trivialising the effects of stress. Yes, this was a stressful situation with a defined end.  However, I always thought that I was invulnerable to it and I never suspected that something that I love doing would be the trigger.  I now have a better understanding of just how crippling it can be, and how even small or much loved things can be the straw that breaks the camel’s back.

 

 

 

 

 

Stress in modern Britain: An update to the seminal 50 year old survey

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By Henry Lovett, Policy & Public Affairs Officer, The Physiological Society

In the 21st century, stress is all-pervasive. The Physiological Society has conducted a national survey in the vein of the seminal work of Holmes and Rahe in 1967[1] to ascertain how different stressful events, both positive and negative, affect people. In partnership with polling firm YouGov,[2] we surveyed over 2000 British adults and asked them to rate how stressful they find (or imagine they would find) 18 different life events. The results suggest some enlightening conclusions.

The overall ordering of the stressor events is given here, along with an average score (out of ten points) assigned to each one.

Rank Event Stress /10
1 Death of spouse/relative/friend 9.43
2 Imprisonment 9.15
3 Flood/fire damaging your home 8.89
4 Being seriously ill 8.52
5 Being fired 8.47
6 Separation/divorce 8.47
7 Identity theft 8.16
8 Unexpected money problems 7.39
9 Starting a new job 6.54
10 Planning a wedding 6.51
11 Arrival of first child 6.06
12 Commute delays 5.94
13 Terrorist threats 5.84
14 Losing smartphone 5.79
15 Moving to bigger house 5.77
16 Brexit 4.23
17 Going on holiday 3.99
18 Promotion/success at work 3.78

Perhaps most interestingly, for every single event, the reported stress experienced by men was lower than that by women. The average difference was 0.56 points. The biggest difference was in the stress caused by the threat of terrorism, which was 1.25 points higher for women. The smallest difference was for the arrival of a first child – a life-changing event for either sex! Of course, we cannot tell from these figures if the women responding do experience greater stress, or are simply more willing to report it; an age-old problem of this type of research.

Overall regional differences were small, with the average stress level across Great Britain varying only by 0.28 points. The most stressed area was Scotland, while the least stressed was the South East of England. The East of England was notably upset by delays in their commutes, while Londoners were most sanguine about going on holiday.

The results for some events point towards stress levels increasing with age, most strongly for long-term problems such as illness or imprisonment. Exceptions to this trend were the loss of a smartphone, which fits with the added difficulties this would cause to highly-connected younger generations, and the arrival of a first child. This was rated highest by those 25-34, who are likely to be the group experiencing this most recently.

One interesting stressor was Brexit (with the given definition of “the process of leaving the European Union”). Though ranking low among all the stressors, Brexit had the greatest variety of responses given, shown by the highest standard deviation. Respondents aged 18-24 scored Brexit stress a point higher on average than those 55+. Those living in London and Scotland also scored Brexit a point higher on average than Wales and much of the rest of England. Most markedly, those respondents educated to higher degree level reported stress two points higher than people with only GCSEs or A-Levels, while undergraduate degree-holders were also more stressed, though more than a point lower than those with higher degrees. These trends correlate with the constituencies of the electorate most likely to vote Remain in the referendum, suggesting they are finding the Brexit process stressful while leavers are happier to let things play out.

Participants were also asked to fill in any other particularly stressful events which they felt the survey had missed out. The most common responses concerned driving: car breakdowns, suffering traffic, road rage, or being the passenger of a careless driver all featured. Another set of common response described caring responsibilities for aged, ill or disabled people.

Finally, to the person who responded: “Trying to enter an amateur radio contest when the ionospheric conditions are poor due to a coronal mass ejection, coupled with a neighbour’s plasma TV causing major interference on the 1.8 to 7 MHz bands.” All we can say is, we feel your pain.

[1] T Holmes and R Rahe, Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Vol. 11, pp. 213 to 218. Pergamon Press. 1967

[2] All figures, unless otherwise stated, are from YouGov Plc. Total sample size was 2078 adults. Fieldwork was undertaken between 22nd – 28th December 2016.  The survey was carried out online. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all GB adults (aged 18+).