Blended learning in physiology – merging new technologies with traditional approaches

By Louise Robson, @LouisescicommDepartment of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

Learning and teaching in physiology has undergone something of a revolution over the last 30 years, and as someone who had their very first teaching experience back in 1989 (running tutorials as a PhD student) I speak from experience! One of the biggest changes has been around digital technologies, bringing benefits and challenges to both students and staff. However, while there are challenges (e.g. information overload), for me the benefits far outweigh any challenges digital technologies generate.

I teach ion channel physiology, and aim for students to not only understand the ideas and concepts in this area, but also be able to apply these to novel experimental data. For this reason, I use data handling and interpretation exercises in my modules, i.e. students utilise mathematical approaches, interpret their data and draw on data from other sources. One thing that certainly hasn’t changed is that students struggle with mathematics, and I suspect I am not the only academic to observe a sea of white faces when I have equations on my slides!  However, my modules are very popular, despite the complex mathematics. The reason for this is my blended learning approach to teaching, matching traditional teaching with digital technologies.

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Figure 1:  Top tips for students on using lecture capture. Click here for more details: https://osf.io/edmzf/ (E, Nordmann et al, 2018).

In this approach, recorded lectures introduce calculations underpinning physiological mechanisms,  so that students can revisit to help their understanding. I have been using lecture capture for several years, and my experience is that it enhances learning. I have observed an increase in academic performance in my final year modules, and the types of questions students ask are more insightful. They utilise the captures to get to grips with the lecture content and their higher level questions are then often about the published literature. Of course if you are providing captures it is really important that students understand how to use these. Work by a cross-institutional group of academics, of which I am a member, has recently provided top tips for students and staff on using lecture capture, also presenting these in a student-friendly infographic format, Figure 1 (E, Nordmann et al 2018). his work highlights an important but often forgotten aspect of learning and teaching, share your ideas and experiences and collaborate with others.  

The best way to learn is to do, and my students complete formative data handling workbooks that reinforce lectures and provide additional guidance. This allows students to develop skills in a low risk environment, and feed-forward and improve for the assessments. Problem solving classes require students to apply their knowledge and skills, providing an opportunity for personal feedback. I also provide dynamic maths videos for them to view. Using a variety of approaches allows students to work in the way they find most beneficial (one size does not fit all in education). The final module session tests knowledge and understanding using the interactive Lecture Tools platform, allowing students to test knowledge and understanding. This blended approach provides an enhanced learning experience for the students, and is clearly appreciated by them, as they have voted me best Biomedical Science Lecturer at Sheffield several years in a row.  

Many of you reading this article may be in the early years of your academic careers, and while there is lots of advice on developing your research profile, there is often less structured support on developing learning and teaching. So here are my top tips:

  1. Get experience early on.  I started as a PhD student and continued to gain experience as a postdoctoral researcher.  
  2. Seek advice from experienced individuals.
  3. Identify the key developments in learning and teaching, and give them a go.
  4. Evaluate what you do.  Some things will work (but not everything).  Don’t forget ethical approval if you want to publish.
  5. Document innovation as you go.  In research, outputs are easy to define.  In learning and teaching, it’s not so easy!
  6. Always think about what is best for your students (note, it’s not always what they want).
  7. Share your ideas and collaborate as much as possible.  

I hope you have found this article useful, and that you have been able to identify some ideas for your learning and teaching development (if you want more information, just ask)!    

References

E, Nordmann, CE, Kuepper-Tetzel, L, Robson, S, Phillipson, GI, Lipan, P, McGeorge (2018). Lecture capture: Practical recommendations for students and lecturers (pre-publication): 10.31234/osf.io/sd7u4

Learning a research career is within my reach: Undergraduate Summer Studentship Scheme

By Sara Rayhan, University of Southampton

I received a Summer Studentship in 2017 for a project at the University of Southampton, under the supervision of Felino Cagampang. My project examined the effects of maternal obesity in pregnancy on the placenta, an organ that supplies the foetus with oxygen and nutrients, in mice. More specifically, we measured placental expression of two growth-related genes in obese pregnant mice. One gene is responsible for blood vessel formation (VGEF) and the other (RAPTOR) for the response to nutrient and insulin levels.

Both have been linked to cardiovascular disease. We also examined the effect of maternal metformin treatment in obese pregnancy on the expression levels of these genes in the placenta. Metformin is a drug used to treat gestational diabetes but its effect on the placenta and the developing foetus is unknown. Maternal high fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy reduced VEGF mRNA expression in the placenta depending on MET treatment, while placental RAPTOR expression increases with maternal HFD. These changes in gene expression could alter placental function and foetal development, and have long-term consequences on cardiometabolic health of the offspring. It further suggests that metformin should be prescribed with caution to pregnant women.

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Due to the great deal of guidance given, the project was far less daunting and the workload was more than manageable. I learnt that research is coordinated within a specific lab group, with individual each conducting their own research projects, and feeding back to the team to provide a more holistic understanding. Also, numerous different departments liaise with each other and I had the privilege of being able to attend to these meetings along with conferences held within the hospital. This showed me how a research environment is very much interdisciplinary and relies on understanding how the work presented by others may impact your own research.

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This studentship has given me the opportunity to experience what it means to be a part of a research group and the fundamental impact your work could have and this is something that has very much resonated with me. It’s allowed me to be challenged, but also to gain a greater insight and grow in confidence in my laboratory techniques. Because of this, I now realise that a research-intensive career is not beyond my reach and that it is far less intimidating than I perceived it to be. I am now in the process of considering pursuing a Masters in Biomedical Sciences, and would very much like to pursue a technical laboratory focused career, perhaps in a hospital setting.

(This article was originally published in Physiology News 110, page 43.)

Obesity: hamsters may hold the clue to beating it

Apply by 28 February for our Research Grants of up to £10,000 (over a 12 to 18-month period). This scheme supports physiologists in their first permanent academic position or returning to a permanent position after a career break, to provide support for their research or to provide seed-funding to start a new project. Gisela Helfer was a 2017 awardee of this grant, and you can read about her research below:

The global obesity crisis shows no signs of abating, and we urgently need new ways to tackle it. Consuming fewer calories and burning more energy through physical activity is a proven way to lose weight, but it’s clearly easier said than done. The problem with eating less and moving more is that people feel hungry after exercise and they have to fight the biologically programmed urge to eat. To develop effective ways to lose weight, we need a better understanding of how these biological urges work. We believe hamsters hold some clues.

Hamsters and other seasonal animals change their body and behaviour according to the time of year, such as growing a thick coat in winter or only giving birth in spring. Some seasonal animals can also adjust their appetite so that they aren’t hungry when less food is available. For example, the Siberian hamster loses almost half its body weight in time for winter, so they don’t need to eat as much to survive the winter months. Understanding the underlying physiological processes that drive this change may help us to understand our own physiology and may help us develop new treatments.

How hungry we feel is controlled by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus helps to regulate appetite and body weight, not only in seasonal animals but also in humans.

Tanycytes (meaning “long cells”) are the key cells in the hypothalamus and, amazingly, they can change size and shape depending on the season. In summer, when there is a lot of daylight and animals eat more, tanycytes are long and they reach into areas of the brain that control appetite. In winter, when days are shorter, the cells are very short and few.

These cells are important because they regulate hormones in the brain that change the seasonal physiology of animals, such as hamsters and seasonal rats.

Growth signals

We don’t fully understand how all these hormones in the hypothalamus interact to change appetite and weight loss, but our recent research has shown that growth signals could be important.

One way that growth signals are increased in the brain is through exercise. Siberian hamsters don’t hibernate; they stay active during the winter months. If hamsters have access to a running wheel, they will exercise more than usual. When they are exercising on their wheel, they gain weight and eat more. This is true especially during a time when they would normally be small and adapted for winter. Importantly, the increased body weight in exercising hamsters is not just made up of increased muscle, but also increased fat.

We know that the hamsters interpret the length of day properly in winter, or, at least, in a simulated winter day (the lights being on for a shorter duration), because they still have a white winter coat despite being overweight. We now understand that in hamsters the exercise-stimulated weight gain has to do with hormones that usually regulate growth, because when we block these hormones the weight gain can be reversed.

When people take up exercise, they sometimes gain weight, and this may be similar to what happens in hamsters when appetite is increased to make up for the increased energy being burned during exercise. This doesn’t mean that people shouldn’t exercise during the winter, because we don’t naturally lose weight like Siberian hamsters, but it does explain why, for some people, taking up exercise might make them feel hungrier and so they might need extra help to lose weight.

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We need to find ways to overcome appetite. Lucky Business/Shutterstock.com

What we have learned from studying hamsters so far has already given us plenty of ideas about which cells and systems we need to look at in humans to understand how weight regulation works. This will create new opportunities to identify possible targets for anti-obesity drugs and maybe even tell us how to avoid obesity in the first place.

By Gisela Helfer@gi_helfer and Rebecca Dumbell

(This blog was originally published on The Conversation.)

Life at the Limits: Register now for our extreme environmental physiology conference

By Mike Tipton, @ProfMikeTiptonExtreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Portsmouth University

“Ecology”, from the Greek “oikos” meaning home or place to live, is the branch of biology that deals with the relationships of organisms and their physical surroundings. It encompasses the impact of animals on their environment, and the environment on animals. Both sides of the ecology coin are becoming increasingly important and linked.

On one side we are careering, largely unfettered, towards the man-made abyss of the end game of global warming; we are threatening our direct descendants, but at a rate and distance that doesn’t provoke us to action.

On the other side, only 15% of the surface of our planet is not water, desert, ice or mountain. For a tropical, low altitude, air-breathing human, this means most of planet Earth represents an extreme environment, defined as a place where it is difficult to survive. The link between the two is, of course, that global warming will make our planet even more extreme with flooding, erosion, heat waves, cold snaps and desertification.

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Perhaps, therefore, there is no better time for The Physiological Society to plan a specialist conference on Extreme Environmental Physiology (EEP) on 2-4 September.

From origins where EEP research was largely undertaken for occupational groups such as miners and the military, as well as those attempting expeditions to remote parts of the globe, EEP has now become much more “mainstream.” The greatest number of submissions and publications in the journals of The Physiological Society come from the areas of “environmental” and “exercise” physiology; both of which have extreme environmental components.

EEP research continues to examine the responses of humans to environmental stressors such as heat, cold and altitude; these remain important areas in themselves with, for example, at least 1000 people dying from drowning every day around the planet. But EEP research is now also providing insights into a wide range of other conditions such as: responses to hypoxia on intensive care (“survivor phenotypes”); ageing; peripheral vascular disease; osteoporosis; and debilitation caused in critical care patients by bed rest.

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In addition, as we take greater and greater control of our environment through technology, it is becoming increasingly apparent that we need to challenge our homeostatic mechanisms in order to remain functional. At one time we did this naturally by exercise and exposure to the natural world, now we have to employ thermal therapies for a wide range of physiological and mental health pathologies, from microvascular function through autonomic function to depression.

The specialist conference at Portsmouth in September will reflect all of the above, with sessions on cold, heat, hypo- and hyperbaric physiology, micro-gravity and cross-adaptation. To remind us what an eclectic discipline physiology is, each session will include short keynotes on physiology, pathophysiology and comparative physiology, as well as plenty of time for free communications. Finally, it seems appropriate that we should “flip the coin” and spend some time on what the environment might have in store for us if we continue to damage it.

Our exciting keynote speakers include:

References

  1. Martin & McKenna (2017). High Altitude Research and its Relevance to Critical Illness. ICU Management & Practice 17(2): 103-105.
  2. Tipton MJ (2015). GL Brown Lecture: “Extreme Threats” Environmental extremes: origins, consequences and amelioration. Experimental Physiology. doi: 10.1113/EP085362.
  3. Tipton, M. J. (2018) Humans: a homeothermic animal that needs perturbation? Experimental Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1113/EP087450.

Early Career Conference: Join us in December!

Want to run a two-day early career physiology conference? This valuable experience will give you leadership experience and boost your CV! Any Affiliate and/or Undergraduate Members of The Society may apply. Read testimonials from our first Future Physiology conference in 2017 below. 

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Jose L. Areta, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway:

Attending the Future Physiology meeting in Leeds in December 2017, coming all the way from Oslo, Norway, was a privilege I had thanks to a Physiological Society travel grant. I am a post-doctoral researcher in the early stages of what, I think, might turn into a long academic career. I signed up for this conference specifically to get a better overview and insights on what a researcher at my stage could do to make the right choices for his future career. The conference did not fail to provide valuable food for thought.

The attendees included a wide range of representatives of the academic career continuum, from undergraduates to professors. A majority of these were, seemingly, early career researchers (ECRs) and they belonged to a reasonably wide range of areas within the field of physiology. This showed that the purpose of the conference was to go beyond delving into their specific areas of expertise. A dominant topic of interest seemed to be commonalities irrespective of the specific area of expertise, meaning the ins and outs of working in and growing through academia.

Several of the sessions provided examples of more established researchers showcasing how they built their own academic careers in the context of research in physiology. The take-home message for me was that there is no one way to become an established researcher in any given area. The impression that I got is that love for the work you do followed by dedication and a solid network play a key role, immediately followed by serendipity. This seemed to provide some support to the saying ‘the harder you work, the luckier you get’, that I sometimes remind myself of.

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On that note, it was also nice to feel supported by other researchers going through similar difficulties in a research system that seems to very often put high-pressure on individuals and can lead to sub-optimal life quality and, in many cases, burnout. Uncertainty seems to be a common denominator for many researchers in different stages of their careers (more so ECRs). Making this explicit is important to find a solution for it. I think this conference was a good first step to bridge the gap between ECRs who have a lot of questions on how to progress through the ranks, while making meaningful contributions to science and more experienced researchers talking about their specific experiences or professionals providing advice.

Personally, one of my favourite events was a small grant-writing workshop I had the chance to attend that also turned into a bit of a career advice workshop. Transitioning towards being an independent researcher is very significant milestone for anyone in research, I think. Gathering some tools to do so in the context finding one’s place in the field was a nice addition to the experience of the conference.

In conclusion, I think this conference was a good first step to put the uncertainties that ECRs face throughout their development as researchers in the spotlight, and provide them (us!) with tools and networks for better tackling these.

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Dan Brayson, King’s College London, London, UK:

As a member of the Affiliate Working Group of The Society, I was privileged to have the opportunity to help with the planning and execution of the Future Physiology meeting, an early career researcher (ECR) focussed meeting held at the University of Leeds last month. The meeting was ‘by ECRs for ECRs’. This meant that the Affiliate Working Group was placed at forefront of the brainstorming process to come up with a plan for a meeting which facilitated an engaging experience for early career scientists.

What we hoped for was an opportunity for ECR’s to shed their inferiority complex baggage (we all have it), and to feel invigorated by the conference experience rather than being overwhelmed. To this end 20 ECRs were selected for oral presentations whilst five talks were given by senior scientists (for balance, of course). Of these, three were young PIs and shining examples that we don’t have to wait around for professors to retire in order to make significant progress in our careers. We hoped that this would add a motivational slant for attendees. If they can do it, why can’t we?

On a personal note it was a red letter day. I was charged with sharing the chairing and presentation-marking duties with my fellow Affiliate Working Group members, a first for me, and with this, I got to experience the joy of facilitating meeting proceedings rather than merely taking part. At least this was my perception of it, and I would definitely do it again.

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Reflecting now on the meeting I feel that it was a good first crack at a meeting for ECRs. However, I also feel that there is further scope to create the most engaging and immersive experience for young scientists. One idea would be to have facilitated debate workshops on general topics (neuroscience, cardiovascular physiology, gastrointestinal physiology etc.). This would engage people in a relaxed environment to talk more generally about the big issues/questions facing their chosen fields.

Life Sciences 2019: Post-translational modification and cell signalling

Submit your abstract by 21 January 2019 for this exciting meeting on 17-18 March 2019 in Nottingham, UK. 

By Gary Stephens, member of the Organising Committee

Even after proteins are built via transcription and translation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) can change their function. As this has implications throughout the body – such as neuronal signalling, cardiac function, circadian rhythms and in diseases including cancer and psychiatric disorders – post translational modulations are an expanding area of scientific research. All physiologists looking to innovate their science by networking across disciplines should attend Life Science 2019, brought to you by The Physiological Society, the British Pharmacological Society and the Biochemical Society.

In addition to symposia and plenary lectures, the meeting will have training events and an early career researcher (ECR) networking event. If you’re keen to present your research orally, you’re in luck, as a good number of submitted abstracts will be elevated to oral presentations, in particular from ECRs.

PTMs increase the diversity of the protein function, primarily by adding functional groups to proteins, but can also involve the modification of regulatory subunits, or degradation of proteins to terminate effects. PTMs include numerous biologically vital processes such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, nitrosylation, methylation, acetylation, lipidation and proteolysis. Identifying and understanding PTMs within major body systems including neuronal, cardiovascular and immune systems is critical in the study of normal physiological function and disease treatment.

As a researcher interested in synaptic function, one symposium that has immediate personal appeal is “PTMs in the regulation of neuronal synapses” will include how PTMs on both sides of the synapse are fundamental to forms of synaptic plasticity. Matt Gold (University College London, UK) will speak on targeting of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin in postsynaptic spines. Moitrayee Bhattacharyya (University of California, Berkeley, USA) will present about the postsynapse, specifically the role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in driving synaptic long-term potentiation via modifications in postsynaptic spines. For the ion channel aficionados, Annette Dolphin (University College London, UK) will discuss the role of post-translational proteolytic cleavage of α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunits in synaptic function.

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Protein methylation in health and disease will feature a presentation from Steven Clarke, (University of California Los Angeles, USA) on cross-talk between methyltransferases to affect the final degree of protein modification and epigenetic control. Kusum Kharbanda (University of Nebraska, USA) will present about how external stimuli such as the consumption of alcohol has important cellular consequences for methyltransferase activity and the development of disease. Pedro Beltran-Alvarez (University of Hull) will detail the combination of biochemical, cell biology, bioinformatics and proteomics methods used to identify the arginine methylome in tissues including platelets and the heart. This has clear functional importance in physiological cardiovascular function.

We hope to see you in Nottingham!

Friends in high places: Researchers go global for answers at high altitude (Part 2)

By Alexandra Williams, @AlexM_Williams

This blog is the second and final part of a series that began here.

Experience

1 July 2018, Day 2 at altitude

The viscometer is being set up in the bloods room and is a key weapon in our arsenal for primary outcome measures in multiple studies. Due to voltage differences (compared to Canada) the unit needs to be connected to a step-down. We connect the viscometer, water bath and the step-down, and at first all seems to be functioning well. A few minutes later, an odd scent emerges. Ah, the step-down is smoking, not good! This unfortunately is not the first fire hazard we’ve encountered. In Nepal, one of our technicians had to rewire most of the outlets to ensure they wouldn’t catch flame. A few days ago, an outlet connected to a locally-made space heater went alight. We are constantly having to double- and triple-check that our equipment doesn’t melt due to poor electrical wiring, or mismatched voltage inputs/ outputs. At the same time, though, we more often find ourselves very thankful that we have electricity to power the large volume of studies being conducted in these remote locations.

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Views from the valleys: descent through Lobuche Pass, Nepal 2016 (top) and Ticlio Pass, Peru 2018 (bottom), both ~4800-5000 m altitude.

These expeditions provide comprehensive research experience and encourage growth amongst the team and its individuals. Things are not always sunshine, rainbows and unicorns, though the many logistical hurdles provide an opportunity for learning and developing our problem-solving abilities.

We often must think outside of the box and utilise our creative capacities to circumvent roadblocks, technical difficulties and unexpected challenges.

Aside from common technical conundrums, there are often cultural barriers that are both interesting and of course region-dependent. One obvious challenge is language – in Nepal, this was less obvious because many of the porters and Sherpa required some English for their work in tourism. Surprisingly to us, Peru has proved much more difficult, as virtually no one in Cerro de Pasco speaks a language other than Spanish. In fact, the local residents have an accent that is ‘poquito’ difficult for our translators to understand, so trying to explain protocols can be tricky. For example, measurements of total blood volume using the carbon monoxide rebreathe technique require the participant to complete a few steps: fully empty the lungs; attach to the spirometer mouthpiece; turn the valve; rapidly fill the lungs and hold for ten seconds; breathe normally for two minutes into the spirometer; then empty the lungs and turn the valve to close the system… all without breaking the glass spirometer (Fig. 2). Simple, right? Not so much. Despite our efforts to perform practice runs and explain the protocol several times over with physical demonstrations and translators, this is notably challenging.

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Members of the Global REACH team, in 2016 at the Ev-K2-CNR Laboratory (5050m) in Khumjung region, Nepal (top) and recently in 2018 at the Institutio de Investigaciones de la Altura (4350m) in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (bottom).

While these international expeditions allow us to become immersed in a different geographical and cultural environment, certain local traditions or values unbeknownst to us can provide unexpected barriers. In Nepal, the Sherpa were incredibly kind, and almost always smiling. They would seldom show negativity or utter complaints. One of our prime focuses on these expeditions is to examine blood markers of inflammation, blood gases and hematocrit concentration. In Nepal we collected serial arterial and venous blood samples at every stop during our ascent, but in Pheriche, one stop before the Pyramid, the Sherpa began to show concern, some requesting to skip the blood draws. We would find out the Sherpa perceived blood as their lifeforce, and that once lost, blood could not be replaced. They believed the loss of blood would weaken them and impair their state of being.

One translator mentioned the word ‘vampire’ and explained the concern that their blood might be sold. Luckily, with the help of our lead Sherpa and a few of the elders, we were able to convey that the bloods were solely used for research purposes and that we would never take more than necessary for study.

1 July 2018, day 2 at altitude; 16:05 h

I look over after completing one great blood volume test on the fourth Andean participant today (we’re getting more effective at translating) and the viscometer is now working, with a step-down that isn’t smoking! Turns out the previous step-down was pulled off the shelves of the Cerro lab. We’ve found one of our own from Canada and it has worked like a charm. With a bit of flexibility and a sprinkle of luck, these things often happen to work out.

Despite the aforementioned challenges, these expeditions provide overwhelmingly positive experiences, opportunities for personal growth and adventure. As researchers, we gain incredible organisational skills: much like a game of Tetris, we learn to schedule participants amongst multiple studies, ensuring a fine balance between efficiency and crossover i.e. that no measures conflict with other studies. Our communication skills grow as we continually coordinate between our local contacts, the P.I.s and the rest of the team. Even when things go completely off-plan, we learn to utilise flexibility and make the best of challenging situations. This field-based research teaches us quick thinking, adaptability (no pun intended) and resourcefulness. The challenges themselves provide strong learning experiences to be applied moving forward.

Perhaps the most obvious and enticing draw of these expeditions is the element of adventure. Not surprisingly, team leader Phil Ainslie’s initial involvement in altitude research was borne from his job as a mountain guide before attending university. ‘The first (trip) was when I was 22 or 23… I was running a trip in northwest India to some peaks at 6,000 m or 7,000 m. Damian (Bailey) was my instructor and he asked, ‘would you collect some blood samples’? And I said, ‘sure’. I spun samples down with a hand-crank centrifuge at 5,000 m on 25 people and took (saturation) measures, just me. And brought it all back. I’ve gone back (to altitude) every few years since.’ Following Phil’s lead, these expeditions allow us to explore incredible regions and share awe-inspiring experiences with our international collaborators. Visiting Everest Base Camp or climbing a (slightly dangerous) hill to look out at the Andes creates a bond of friendship and provides the foundation for long-lasting international collaborations that define Global REACH.

Team

9 July 2018; 21:53 h

Phil Ainslie (University of British Columbia), Mike Stembridge (Cardiff Metropolitan University), Craig Steinback (University of Alberta) and Jonathan Moore (Bangor University) and I are sat in the lobby of our hotel, chatting over a few Cusqueña beers. While discussing the 2016 Nepal Expedition, I explained how impressed I was that a group of 37 individuals had worked so well together, with no obvious dramas despite living in a harsh environment.

‘It’s similar to the New Zealand All Blacks values… basically the ‘no dickheads’ rule’, one of us said. We all laughed, then nodded in agreement. ‘Well, much like in mountaineering leadership, a mantra of the All Blacks rugby team is that they ‘sweep the sheds’, meaning that it doesn’t matter if you’re the star player – everyone on the team cleans the dressing room. If you’re a dickhead, if you’re not a team player, you’re not part of the All Blacks.

Phil has explicitly provided permission to include this conversation in the article, because while blunt, this type of value characterises the core of our collaborations and ensures the success of the expeditions. When everyone works together, dismisses ego and shares positive energy, the team thrives. Sixteen-hour testing days become relatively easy when you’re having fun.

Our team is at the heart of our success. We embrace collaborators with infectious personalities that border on the sides of eclectic and hyperactive: those with a genuine passion for research and zest for life. Team members remind each other to look beyond the academic pressures of funding and publication for the sake of career progression and light a fire and excitement for discovery.

Our peers drive us to new heights, literally and figuratively, in our academic prowess. We find less pride in our individual successes than in those of our teammates.

Our leaders – Phil Ainslie, Mike Stembridge and the late Christopher Willie – continue to inspire us. Their energy brings the continents together to create impressively cohesive and brilliant multidisciplinary collaborations. Their teams will continue to go global and reach for answers to important health-related questions at Earth’s highest altitudes.

(You can read the full article in its original version in Physiology News magazine.)